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ФИЗИКО-ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИИ PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ФИЗИКО-ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИИ. Профессор Н.Г. Рамбиди. 11. Нанохимия. Молекулярный дизайн.

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ФИЗИКО-ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИИ

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Cs+

  • Negative charge concentrated in the cavity of the molecule

  • Forms stable lewis acid / lewis base with complex


Formation of calixarenes

Formation of Calixarenes

  • Phenol is reacted Formaldehyde and NaOH then heated


Calixarene configuration

Calixarene Configuration


Molecular binding

Molecular binding

Cs+

  • The facing pairs of aromatic rings of the calixarene in this conformation form two cavities that are each pre-organized for partial insertion of a Cs+ ion.

  • Crystal structures of model complexes with cesium salts have demonstrated a significant dual pi-interaction between the facing aromatic rings and the guest Cs+ ion.

Cs+


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Nontraditional Fullerenes enclosing metal atom clusters.

- Three fused pentagons in the C68 cage: Violation of the Isolated Pentagon Rule

(IPR).

- Strong gain of stability upon incorporation of NSc3 in the C68 cage

[email protected]

Use of Fullerenes enclosing metal atom clusters as

Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging contrast agents ?


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Fullerenes with incorporated Helium Clusters

  • NMR studies on noble gas atoms enclosed in fullerene shells

  • ( M. S. Syamala et al., JACS 124, 6216, 2002 ).

  • Hen encapsulated fullerenes of extraterestial detected in geological sediments

  • ( L. Becker et al., Science 291 1530 2001 ).

Hen configurations in fullerene cages?

[email protected] (D2d)

[email protected]@C60 (Ih)


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Organic, polymer/biopolymer synthesis

Building blocks with natural and synthetic components for site directed self assembly into functional nanostructure


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Organic synthesis: from single molecules to molecular assemblies, building block libraries, self-assembling components, liquid crystals, electroactive materials, photonic materials, chromophores, sensor elements

Combinatorial synthesis: libraries of ligands or catalysts, lead discovery and exploitation.

Polymer synthesis: polymers with controlled sequence and/or architecture, dendrimers, porous and reactive media, surface coatings.

Hybrid materials: organic-inorganic, biological-artificial.


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Light harvesting: natural and synthetic ring antennae

Rings of chlorophylls and carotenoids funnel harvested energy to reaction center (RC). Subsequent energy transfer steps lead to the production of ATP.


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Guest =

Self-assembly of a receptor from H-bonded molecular building blocks

Reinhoudt et al.


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Governing equation of dielectric elastomers

Governing Equation of Dielectric Elastomers

p=e*e0*E2

  • Where:

    • p is effective compressive stress

    • e is relative dielectric constant

    • e0 is permittivity of free space (a constant)

    • E is strength of electric field between diodes


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Applications heel strike generator

Applications: Heel-Strike Generator

  • DoD is using dielectric elastomers to develop a heel-strike generator to go in soldiers boots that would generate electricity just from walking

  • A dielectric elastomer generator works like an actuator in reverse (mechanical-to-electrical instead of electrical-to-mechanical energy)


Responsive materials

Responsive materials


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Surfactant molecules oil water building blocks

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

OSO3-

Surfactant Molecules: Oil-Water Building Blocks

Surfactant

Oil

Non polar tail

Oil-Water Interface

Water

Polar head group

Monolayer formation

Micelles - nano-reactors, drug delivery vehicles, and cleaning agents


Micelles in the bulk solution

Micelles in the Bulk Solution

Formation of stable aggregates at the cmc.

low concentration

high concentration


Micelles

Micelles

Polar water-like surface

10-100 nm

Apolar oil-like interior

Normal in water

Reversed in oil

Solubilization

Nanoreactors

Oil Recovery

Drug Delivery


Monolayer formation

Monolayer formation

Surfactants can also adsorb at the air-water interface

Adsorption at the air-water interface


Amphiphiles

Amphiphiles

Polar

Non-polar

dodecylsulphate

phosphatidyl choline lyso- phosphatidyl choline


Critical micelle conc

Critical micelle conc


Micelles monolayers bilayers

Micelles/Monolayers/Bilayers

polar

polar

non-polar

non-polar

non-polar

polar


Lamellar phase amphiphiles

Lamellar phase Amphiphiles

Get x-ray/nmr data

PC - forms lamellar phases = bilayers of biology


Lipid bilayers

Lipid bilayers


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Hexagonal phase Amphiphiles

PE -forms hexagonal phase = fusion regions of biology


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Langmuir films

Langmuir Films

Spread on water. Not equilibrium adsorption. Film can be compressed

Air

Water subphase

Langmuir film


On water

On Water

Stearic Acid Isotherm

Solid

Liquid

Surface Pressure (mN/cm2)

Gas

Water

Area (cm2 )

S-Azo-C18 Isotherm

Water

Solid

Surface Pressure (mN/cm2)

Liquid

Gas

Water

Area (cm2 )


Langmuir schaeffer films

Langmuir-Schaeffer Films

Solid substrate

Water subphase

Water subphase


Langmuir blodgett deposition

Langmuir-Blodgett Deposition

Hydrophobic

Surface (OTS)

Hydrophobic

Surface

Water

Hydrophilic

surface


Multilayer

Multilayer

~ 10 nm

X

Z

Y

Head to head

Tail to tail

Head to tail

Tail to head


The instrument

The Instrument


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Chemisorption

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Chemisorption

Chemical reaction between the building block and the solid substrate

X

Spontaneous

irreversible

X

Functionalized surface

X

X

X

X

X

Reactive

site


3d representation

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

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X

X

X

3D-Representation


Ots on glass

OTS on Glass

OTS octadecyltrichlorosilane


Ots on glass1

OTS on Glass

OTS coated substrate surface


Membrane structure

Membrane Structure


Types of membrane proteins

Types of membrane proteins


Membrane protein structure

Membrane Protein Structure


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Solid phase peptide synthesis spps

Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

--for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix

Robert Bruce Merrifield

Rockefeller University


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Easier!!


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Prepare fully protected peptide!


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ABI 433A Peptide Synthesizer


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Coupling efficiency and final yield

Yield (%)

efficiency (%)

10-mer

20-mer

30-mer

40-mer

50-mer

60-mer

99

90

82

74

67

61

55

98

82

67

55

45

36

30

95

60

36

21

13

8

5

80

11

1

0

0

0

0

Coupling efficiency and final yield


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