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Epilogue Fitting the Pieces Together PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Epilogue Fitting the Pieces Together. Epilogue: Fitting the Pieces Together. Infants (Birth to Age 2) Rapid growth of body and brain Sensorimotor period 2-word sentences Self recognition in the mirror Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust Attachment. Preschool Children (Ages 2-5).

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Epilogue Fitting the Pieces Together

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EpilogueFitting the Pieces Together


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Epilogue: Fitting the Pieces Together

  • Infants (Birth to Age 2)

    • Rapid growth of body and brain

    • Sensorimotor period

    • 2-word sentences

    • Self recognition in the mirror

    • Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust

    • Attachment


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Preschool Children (Ages 2-5)

  • Gross and fine motor control improves

  • Preoperational thinkers

  • Unrealistically high self-esteem

  • Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

  • Developing theory of mind attachment still central

  • Social skills improving


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School-Age Children (Ages 6-11)

  • Refined motor skills

  • Concrete operational thinkers

  • Private speech (Vygotsky)

  • Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority

  • More realistic self-concept emerges

  • Preconventional morality

  • Increased time with peers


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Adolescents ( Ages 12-19)

  • Adjustment to growth spurt and maturity

  • Formal operational thinking possible

  • Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion

  • Begin making decisions about their lives

  • Increased peer involvement

  • 20% experience emotional upheaval


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Young Adults (Ages 20-39)

  • Peak of strength, endurance, RT, perceptual abilities, and sexual maturity

  • Effective cognitive functioning

  • Conventional morality for most

  • Postconventional morality a possibility

  • Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation

  • Marriage and commitment

  • High divorce rates


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Middle-Aged Adults (40-64)

  • Gradual but noticeable physical declines

  • Crystallized intelligence increases

  • Expertise allows peaks of achievement

  • Erikson: Generativity vs. Stagnation

  • Midlife crisis rare

  • Empty nest, Androgyny

  • Freedom and satisfaction the rule


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Older Adults (age 65 and up)

  • Some losses, some gains, many satisfactions

  • Generally some physical impairment

  • Slower processing, expertise maintained

  • Self-esteem and life satisfaction high

  • Erikson: Integrity vs. Despair

  • Diversity of lifestyle: active to passive

  • Personality is stable


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Major Themes in Human Development-1

  • Nature and nurture truly interact

    • Multiple causal forces

    • E.g., cell chemistry to prevailing culture

  • We are whole persons throughout life

    • Intermeshing of physical, cognitive, personal, and social development


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Major Themes in Human Development-2

  • Development proceeds in multiple directions

    • Orthogenic principle: Single cell to mature endpoint

    • Gains and losses at all ages

  • Continuity and Discontinuity

    • Stages

    • Lifelong trait stability


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Major Themes in Human Development-3

  • There is much plasticity in development

    • Capacity to change in response to environment

    • Early experiences rarely make or break us

    • Offset by favorable later experiences

  • Individuals becoming more diverse with age

    • Elderly adults are the most diverse group


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Major Themes in Human Development-4

  • We develop in a cultural and historical context (Vygotsky, Bronfenbrenner)

  • We are active in our own development

    • Piaget

  • Development is a lifelong process

  • Development best viewed from multiple perspectives


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