Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks
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Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks. Linoh A. Magagula & H. Anthony Chan. Presentation outline. Introduction Background Problem Statement Objectives Methodology Conclusion. WiMax. UMTS. IEEE 802.11. GPRS. Introduction.

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Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks

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Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks

Linoh A. Magagula

&

H. Anthony Chan


Presentation outline

Presentation outline

  • Introduction

  • Background

  • Problem Statement

  • Objectives

  • Methodology

  • Conclusion


Introduction

WiMax

UMTS

IEEE 802.11

GPRS

Introduction

  • NGWN  integration of heterogeneous but complimentary wireless access networks

  • Convergence over IP based infrastructure

    • Interwork & interoperate

IP Backbone


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • NGWN provide ubiquitous network access

    • Anywhere, anytime

    • mobile users exploit a variety of access networks to meet their requirements, e.g. charging, QoS, etc.

  • Operators may

    • Offer compelling value-added services

    • Improve network capacity

    • Improve availability of services

       Serve a wider set of users

Happy network users


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • Challenge to the All-IP vision

     vertical handover performance for ongoing real-time

    services continuous network access required

    during handover

    • High handover delay disrupts service continuity hence degrades perceived quality of communication of active connections

      reduce handover delay (optimize

      delay transparency)


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

IP configuration

(CoA/DAD)

Binding

Update

Movement detection

Discovery

Authentication

  • Handover delay: period of time that a handover procedure takes to complete

    • L2 and L3 delays

    • L2 delay is link technology specific

    • L3 delay can be reduced/optimized globally

      • Can not be avoided but can be optimized/reduced

Handover delay


Background problem statement

Background & Problem Statement

  • Various mobility management (MM) protocols proposed at different protocol stack layers to provide connection transparency, e.g.

    • Link layer MM protocols, SCTP, SIP, MIP, etc.

  • Various drawbacks, particularly in terms of handover,e.g.

    • MM protocols maintain mobility binding (reachability state)

      • bindings cannot seamlessly transfer & continue ongoing sessions without disruptions

    • Handover trigger based on signal strength


Background problem statement1

Background & Problem Statement

  • No network selection & handover initiation capabilities

  • Dependent on reactive manipulations of handover process, e.g.

    • Handover initiated when network change is detected @ IP layer

  • High handover delay

  • Not suitable for NGWN in their current form

    • Additional mechanisms required to enhance handover performance


Towards handover delay reduction in ngwn

Internet

HA

CN

IP backbone

Domain gateways

AR

AP

L2 mobility

MN

Micro-mobility

Macro-Mobility

Towards handover delay reduction in NGWN

  • MIPv6 widely accepted MM protocol for NGWN

  • Inherently very long handover delay

  • To improve handover performance: split MM

    • Global (macro)

    • Localized (micro)


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

Domain gateway

Tunnel

Route or

Binding Update

AR

Movement

  • Example Localized MM protocols

    • HMIPv6, Cellular IP, HAWAAI, etc.

    • Fast handover protocols, FMIPv6 proactive registration to reduce handover delay

    • Host-based


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • Utilization of L2 triggers/hints to enhance L3 handover procedure

    • Expense MIPv6 has to be dependent on underlying L2 technology hints not standardized

  • Various other works have been done to improve handover performance & network selectivity. However,

    • Handover delay still high for real time services

    • Handover (network) selectivity without impacting on handover delay is still a challenge


Objectives

Objectives

  • To develop an intelligent architectural framework to improve vertical handover performance for real-time services

    • Reduce IP handover delay

      • To avoid perceptible service disruptions

    • Make faster & accurate network selectivity before handover

      • Perform optimal network selection among heterogeneous access networks in a short time scale

  • Investigate and evaluate tradeoffs (cost benefits)


Methodology

LMA

Route or

Binding Update

Tunnel

MAG

Movement

Methodology

  • Intelligent synthesis of a network-based MM scheme (PMIPv6) and a technology-aware handover mechanism over a cross-layer design architectural framework


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

MIH Users

Upper Layers (L3 and above)

IP

SIP

MIPv6

Applications

Commands

Information

Events

Service Access Point (SAP)

MIH FUNCTION

Link-specific SAPs

Events

Commands

Information

LINK LAYERS

(802.11, 802.16, 802.3, 3GPP, 3GPP2)

  • Utilization of IEEE802.21 MIH services enhance handover performance

  • MIES

    • Report dynamically changing lower layer events to upper layers

  • MICS

    • Enable MIH users to manage & control link behaviour related to mobility & handovers

  • MIIS

    • Facilitate network selection & effective handover decisions

      • Provide information about services & characteristics of neighbourhood


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

Internet

CN

LMA

Info. server

MIH

MAG3

MIH

MAG1

MAG2

PoA

MIH

MIH

PoA

PoA

MIH

MN

  • MN & AR utilize MIH  updating & retrieval of information elements (info/MIIS server)

  • included

    • General info. & access network specific info. (e.g. cost, Qos, security, etc)

    • PoA specific info. (e.g. CoA, data rates, MAC addr., etc)

    • Stable IDs for attached MNs

    • Authentication information

    • Dynamic information

    • Each MAG up-to-date about surroundings


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • Information exchange done before hand

    • Proactive signalling deliberations

  • PMIPv6 domain under single administrative management  maintenance of info. server very feasible


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • Cross-layer design architectural framework to further improve handover performance

    • Protocol layers adapt & collaborate to optimize handover performance

      • Provision of faster signalling for network selection decision and handover initiation support

      • Handover delay is jointly optimized

    • facilitate relevant decision algorithms to react to corresponding handover-causing (initiation) scenarios for fast & accurate handover decisions


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • Any available network

    • Forced handover due to deteriorating signal strength or loss of resources

    • Parameters: RSS, battery power, resources, etc.

  • Best convenient network

    • Unforced handover mainly due to user preferences

    • Parameters: cost, available services, etc.

  • Active service-related handover

    • real-time & multimedia services

    • Parameters: network latency, data rate, QoS, etc.


Analysis of handover delay reduction

New connection ready

LMA

DQ2

DR2

AAA/ Policy store

DPBU

DPBA

DQ

DR

MAG

DATTACH

DRA

MN

time

Handover delay

Analysis of handover delay reduction

  • Typical PMIPv6 handover delay:

  • Attachment notification delay, DATTACH

  • Authentication delay, MAGMN, DAUTH

    • DAUTH = DQ + DR

  • Authentication delay, MAGLMA, DAUTH_2

    • DAUTH_2 = DQ2 + DR2


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

  • Proxy Binding delay, MAGLMA,DBINDING

    • DBINDING = DPBU + DPBA

  • Router Advertisement delay, MGAMN, DRA

  • IP configuration delay, DCONFIG→0when MN is already in PMIPv6 domain per-MN-prefix

  • Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) delay, DDAD≈ 0when MN is already in PMIPv6 domain

  • Total handover delay

    • DPMIPv6=DATTACH+DAUTH+DAUTH_2+DBINDING+DRA


Ieee802 21 enabled pmipv6

IP backbone

CN

LMA

Info. server

MIH

MAG3

MIH

MAG1

MAG2

PoA

MIH

MIH

PoA

PoA

MIH

MN

IEEE802.21-enabled PMIPv6

  • During MN handover, new MAG would already know about attaching MN from relevant information element in server

     DATTACH ≈ 0

  • MN authenticated “before hand” when first discovered in information server

     DAUTH →0

     DAUTH_2 →0

  • Hence, handover delay in our proposed scheme becomes

    • DPMIPv6_802.21=DBINDING+DRA


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • A handover delay reduction mechanism is proposed

  • Future work

    • Experimental evaluations through simulations

      • NS-2 and/or OPNET

  • Performance evaluation

    • Comparison with standardized fast handover schemes, e.g. FMIPv6

    • Comparison with standard performance requirements for real time traffic


Publications

Publications

  • Papers accepted for publications

    • SATNAC 2008 (South Africa, September): Optimized Handover Delay in Proxy Mobile IPv6 using IEEE 802.21 MIH Services

    • WiMOB 2008 (Avignon, France, October): IEEE 802.21-assisted Cross-Layer Design and PMIPv6 Mobility Management Framework for Next Generation Wireless Networks

    • MILCOM 2008 (San Diego, USA, November): IEEE 802.21 Optimized Handover Delay for Proxy Mobile IPv6

    • BroadCom 2008 (Pretoria, South Africa, November): Delay Transparency for Real Time services in PMIPv6


Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks

Thank You


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