Reducing handover delay in next generation wireless networks
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Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks. Linoh A. Magagula & H. Anthony Chan. Presentation outline. Introduction Background Problem Statement Objectives Methodology Conclusion. WiMax. UMTS. IEEE 802.11. GPRS. Introduction.

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Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks

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Reducing Handover Delay in Next Generation Wireless Networks

Linoh A. Magagula

&

H. Anthony Chan


Presentation outline

  • Introduction

  • Background

  • Problem Statement

  • Objectives

  • Methodology

  • Conclusion


WiMax

UMTS

IEEE 802.11

GPRS

Introduction

  • NGWN  integration of heterogeneous but complimentary wireless access networks

  • Convergence over IP based infrastructure

    • Interwork & interoperate

IP Backbone


  • NGWN provide ubiquitous network access

    • Anywhere, anytime

    • mobile users exploit a variety of access networks to meet their requirements, e.g. charging, QoS, etc.

  • Operators may

    • Offer compelling value-added services

    • Improve network capacity

    • Improve availability of services

       Serve a wider set of users

Happy network users


  • Challenge to the All-IP vision

     vertical handover performance for ongoing real-time

    services continuous network access required

    during handover

    • High handover delay disrupts service continuity hence degrades perceived quality of communication of active connections

      reduce handover delay (optimize

      delay transparency)


IP configuration

(CoA/DAD)

Binding

Update

Movement detection

Discovery

Authentication

  • Handover delay: period of time that a handover procedure takes to complete

    • L2 and L3 delays

    • L2 delay is link technology specific

    • L3 delay can be reduced/optimized globally

      • Can not be avoided but can be optimized/reduced

Handover delay


Background & Problem Statement

  • Various mobility management (MM) protocols proposed at different protocol stack layers to provide connection transparency, e.g.

    • Link layer MM protocols, SCTP, SIP, MIP, etc.

  • Various drawbacks, particularly in terms of handover,e.g.

    • MM protocols maintain mobility binding (reachability state)

      • bindings cannot seamlessly transfer & continue ongoing sessions without disruptions

    • Handover trigger based on signal strength


Background & Problem Statement

  • No network selection & handover initiation capabilities

  • Dependent on reactive manipulations of handover process, e.g.

    • Handover initiated when network change is detected @ IP layer

  • High handover delay

  • Not suitable for NGWN in their current form

    • Additional mechanisms required to enhance handover performance


Internet

HA

CN

IP backbone

Domain gateways

AR

AP

L2 mobility

MN

Micro-mobility

Macro-Mobility

Towards handover delay reduction in NGWN

  • MIPv6 widely accepted MM protocol for NGWN

  • Inherently very long handover delay

  • To improve handover performance: split MM

    • Global (macro)

    • Localized (micro)


Domain gateway

Tunnel

Route or

Binding Update

AR

Movement

  • Example Localized MM protocols

    • HMIPv6, Cellular IP, HAWAAI, etc.

    • Fast handover protocols, FMIPv6 proactive registration to reduce handover delay

    • Host-based


  • Utilization of L2 triggers/hints to enhance L3 handover procedure

    • Expense MIPv6 has to be dependent on underlying L2 technology hints not standardized

  • Various other works have been done to improve handover performance & network selectivity. However,

    • Handover delay still high for real time services

    • Handover (network) selectivity without impacting on handover delay is still a challenge


Objectives

  • To develop an intelligent architectural framework to improve vertical handover performance for real-time services

    • Reduce IP handover delay

      • To avoid perceptible service disruptions

    • Make faster & accurate network selectivity before handover

      • Perform optimal network selection among heterogeneous access networks in a short time scale

  • Investigate and evaluate tradeoffs (cost benefits)


LMA

Route or

Binding Update

Tunnel

MAG

Movement

Methodology

  • Intelligent synthesis of a network-based MM scheme (PMIPv6) and a technology-aware handover mechanism over a cross-layer design architectural framework


MIH Users

Upper Layers (L3 and above)

IP

SIP

MIPv6

Applications

Commands

Information

Events

Service Access Point (SAP)

MIH FUNCTION

Link-specific SAPs

Events

Commands

Information

LINK LAYERS

(802.11, 802.16, 802.3, 3GPP, 3GPP2)

  • Utilization of IEEE802.21 MIH services enhance handover performance

  • MIES

    • Report dynamically changing lower layer events to upper layers

  • MICS

    • Enable MIH users to manage & control link behaviour related to mobility & handovers

  • MIIS

    • Facilitate network selection & effective handover decisions

      • Provide information about services & characteristics of neighbourhood


Internet

CN

LMA

Info. server

MIH

MAG3

MIH

MAG1

MAG2

PoA

MIH

MIH

PoA

PoA

MIH

MN

  • MN & AR utilize MIH  updating & retrieval of information elements (info/MIIS server)

  • included

    • General info. & access network specific info. (e.g. cost, Qos, security, etc)

    • PoA specific info. (e.g. CoA, data rates, MAC addr., etc)

    • Stable IDs for attached MNs

    • Authentication information

    • Dynamic information

    • Each MAG up-to-date about surroundings


  • Information exchange done before hand

    • Proactive signalling deliberations

  • PMIPv6 domain under single administrative management  maintenance of info. server very feasible


  • Cross-layer design architectural framework to further improve handover performance

    • Protocol layers adapt & collaborate to optimize handover performance

      • Provision of faster signalling for network selection decision and handover initiation support

      • Handover delay is jointly optimized

    • facilitate relevant decision algorithms to react to corresponding handover-causing (initiation) scenarios for fast & accurate handover decisions


  • Any available network

    • Forced handover due to deteriorating signal strength or loss of resources

    • Parameters: RSS, battery power, resources, etc.

  • Best convenient network

    • Unforced handover mainly due to user preferences

    • Parameters: cost, available services, etc.

  • Active service-related handover

    • real-time & multimedia services

    • Parameters: network latency, data rate, QoS, etc.


New connection ready

LMA

DQ2

DR2

AAA/ Policy store

DPBU

DPBA

DQ

DR

MAG

DATTACH

DRA

MN

time

Handover delay

Analysis of handover delay reduction

  • Typical PMIPv6 handover delay:

  • Attachment notification delay, DATTACH

  • Authentication delay, MAGMN, DAUTH

    • DAUTH = DQ + DR

  • Authentication delay, MAGLMA, DAUTH_2

    • DAUTH_2 = DQ2 + DR2


  • Proxy Binding delay, MAGLMA,DBINDING

    • DBINDING = DPBU + DPBA

  • Router Advertisement delay, MGAMN, DRA

  • IP configuration delay, DCONFIG→0when MN is already in PMIPv6 domain per-MN-prefix

  • Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) delay, DDAD≈ 0when MN is already in PMIPv6 domain

  • Total handover delay

    • DPMIPv6=DATTACH+DAUTH+DAUTH_2+DBINDING+DRA


IP backbone

CN

LMA

Info. server

MIH

MAG3

MIH

MAG1

MAG2

PoA

MIH

MIH

PoA

PoA

MIH

MN

IEEE802.21-enabled PMIPv6

  • During MN handover, new MAG would already know about attaching MN from relevant information element in server

     DATTACH ≈ 0

  • MN authenticated “before hand” when first discovered in information server

     DAUTH →0

     DAUTH_2 →0

  • Hence, handover delay in our proposed scheme becomes

    • DPMIPv6_802.21=DBINDING+DRA


Conclusion

  • A handover delay reduction mechanism is proposed

  • Future work

    • Experimental evaluations through simulations

      • NS-2 and/or OPNET

  • Performance evaluation

    • Comparison with standardized fast handover schemes, e.g. FMIPv6

    • Comparison with standard performance requirements for real time traffic


Publications

  • Papers accepted for publications

    • SATNAC 2008 (South Africa, September): Optimized Handover Delay in Proxy Mobile IPv6 using IEEE 802.21 MIH Services

    • WiMOB 2008 (Avignon, France, October): IEEE 802.21-assisted Cross-Layer Design and PMIPv6 Mobility Management Framework for Next Generation Wireless Networks

    • MILCOM 2008 (San Diego, USA, November): IEEE 802.21 Optimized Handover Delay for Proxy Mobile IPv6

    • BroadCom 2008 (Pretoria, South Africa, November): Delay Transparency for Real Time services in PMIPv6


Thank You


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