Hindlimb imaging quiz
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Hindlimb Imaging Quiz. Developed by: Sorcha McCaughley & Mark Brims Approved by: Alison King & Maureen Bain Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund. Hindlimb Imaging Quiz. START! Developed by: Sorcha McCaughley & Mark Brims Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund. Dog Hindlimb Choose a region:

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Hindlimb imaging quiz

Hindlimb Imaging Quiz

Developed by: SorchaMcCaughley & Mark Brims

Approved by: Alison King & Maureen Bain

Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund


Hindlimb imaging quiz1

Hindlimb Imaging Quiz

START!

Developed by: Sorcha McCaughley & Mark Brims

Supported by: The Chancellor’s Fund


Hindlimb imaging quiz

Dog Hindlimb

Choose a region:

Pelvis Q1

Pelvis Q2

Stifle Q3

Stifle Q4

Tarsus Q5

Foot Q6

Comparative Hindlimb

Choose a species:

Cat

Horse

Horse 2

Ruminant

Pig


Dog pelvis q1

Dog Pelvis Q1

Canine

  • (i) What is A?

    • Ischium

    • Ilium

    • Acetabulum

  • (ii) What is B?

    • Ischium

    • Ilium

    • Acetabulum

  • (iii) What is C?

    • Ischiatic Arch

    • Acetabulum

    • Pubis

  • (iv) What is D?

    • Acetabulum

    • Obturator Foramen

    • Symphysis Pelvis

A

C

D

B


Correct

 Correct 

Feline

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ileum

  • Yes! A is the Ilium!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (ii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Body of Ileum

Canine

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ileum

Body of Ileum


Incorrect

 Incorrect 

Canine

  • No, A is not the Ischium.

  • The Ischium is labelled in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Ischiatic Tuberosity

Ischium


Incorrect1

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not the Acetabulum.

  • The Acetabulum is labelled in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur


Correct1

 Correct 

Canine

  • Yes! B is the Ischium!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (iii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Ischiatic Tuberosity

Ischium


Incorrect2

 Incorrect 

Feline

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ilium

  • No, B is not the Ilium.

  • The Ilium is labelled in these x-rays.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Body of Ilium

Canine

Iliac Crest

Wing of Ilium

Body of Ilium


Incorrect3

 Incorrect 

  • No, B is not the Acetabulum.

  • The Acetabulum is shown in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur


Correct2

 Correct 

  • Yes! C is the Acetabulum!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (iv)!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur


Incorrect4

 Incorrect 

  • No, C is not the Ischiatic Arch.

  • The Ischiatic Arch is labelled in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Ischiatic Arch


Incorrect5

 Incorrect 

  • No, C is not the Pubis.

  • The Pubis is labelled in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Pubis


Correct3

 Correct 

Canine

  • Yes! D is the Obturator Foramen!

  • Here is another example.

  • What nerve passes through the obturator foramen and what is its function?

  • Answer

  • Try Dog Pelvis Q2!

  • Choose a new question.

Obturator Foramen


Answer

Answer

  • The obturator nerve passes through the obturator foramen.

  • It supplies the adductor muscles of the hindlimb.

Go Back!


Incorrect6

 Incorrect 

  • No, D is not the Acetabulum.

  • The Acetabulum is labelled in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Acetabulum & Head of Femur


Incorrect7

 Incorrect 

  • No, D is not the Symphysis Pelvis.

  • The Symphysis Pelvis is labelled in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Symphysis Pelvis - unfused


Dog pelvis q2

Dog Pelvis Q2

Canine

  • (i) What is A?

    • Humerus

    • Femur

    • Tibia

  • (ii) What is B?

    • Head of Femur

    • Greater Trochanter

    • Greater Tubercle

  • (iii) What is C?

    • Greater Tubercle

    • Head of Femur

    • Greater Trochanter

B

C

A


Correct4

 Correct 

  • Yes! A is the Femur!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (ii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Femur


Incorrect8

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not the Humerus.

  • Remember: the Humerus is in the Forelimb!

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Scapula

Humerus


Incorrect9

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not the Tibia.

  • Remember: the Tibia is located between the stifle and tarsal joints in the region known as the crus.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Femur

Fibula

Tibia

This dog has some Osteoarthritis


Correct5

 Correct 

  • Yes! B is the Head of the Femur!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (iii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Head of Femur


Incorrect10

 Incorrect 

  • No, B is not the Greater Trochanter.

  • This x-ray shows the Greater Trochanter.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Greater Trochanter


Incorrect11

 Incorrect 

Canine

  • No, B is not the Greater Tubercle.

  • The Greater Tubercle is shown in these x-rays.

    • Remember: it is found on the Humerus, in the Forelimb!

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Greater Tubercle

Greater Tubercle

Canine


Correct6

 Correct 

  • Yes! C is the Greater Trochanter!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try Dog Stifle Q3!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Greater Trochanter


Incorrect12

 Incorrect 

Canine

  • No, C is not the Greater Tubercle.

  • The Greater Tubercle is shown in these x-rays.

    • Remember: it is found on the Humerus, in the Forelimb!

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Greater Tubercle

Greater Tubercle

Canine


Incorrect13

 Incorrect 

  • No, C is not the Head of the Femur.

  • The Head of the Femur is shown in this x-ray.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Canine

Head of Femur


Dog stifle q3

Dog Stifle Q3

  • (i) What is A?

    • Head of the Femur

    • Condyle of the Femur

    • Trochlear Ridge

  • (ii) What is B?

    • Fibula

    • Radius

    • Tibia

  • (iii) What is C?

    • Fibula

    • Ulna

    • Tibia

  • (iv) What is D?

    • Trochlear Ridge

    • TibialTuberosity

    • Tibialcondyle

D

A

C

B


Correct7

 Correct 

  • Yes! A is the Condyle of the Femur!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (ii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Condyles of Femur


Incorrect14

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not the Head of the Femur.

  • The Head of the Femur is located at the Proximal end of the Femur.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Head of Femur


Incorrect15

 Incorrect 

No, A is not the Trochlear Ridge of the Femur.

The Trochlear Ridge of the Femur is located on the Cranial aspect of the Femur.

Try again!

Choose a new question.

Trochlear ridge of femur


Correct8

 Correct 

  • Yes! B is the Fibula!

  • Here is another example.

    • Remember: the Fibula is the smaller of the two bones distal to the stifle. It is non- weight bearing

  • Try (iii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Fibula


Incorrect16

 Incorrect 

  • No, B is not the Radius.

  • Remember: the Radius is found in the Forelimb!

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Radius


Incorrect17

 Incorrect 

  • No, B is not the Tibia.

  • Remember: the Tibia is the larger of the two bones distal to the stifle! It is weight bearing

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Tibia


Correct9

 Correct 

  • Yes! C is the Tibia!

  • Here is another example.

    • Remember: the Tibia is the larger of the two bones distal to the stifle! It is weight bearing

  • Try (iv)!

  • Choose a new question.

Tibia


Incorrect18

 Incorrect 

  • No, C is not the Fibula.

  • Remember: the Fibula is the smaller of the two bones distal to the stifle. It is non- weight bearing

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Fibula


Incorrect19

 Incorrect 

  • No, C is not the Ulna.

  • Remember: the Ulna is found in the Forelimb!

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Ulna


Correct10

 Correct 

  • Yes! D is the Tibial Tuberosity!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try Dog Stifle Q4!

  • Choose a new question.

Tibial Tuberosity


Incorrect20

 Incorrect 

  • No, D is not the Trochlear Ridge.

  • The Trochlear Ridge is shown in this x-ray.

    • Remember: it is on the femur

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Trochlear Ridge


Incorrect21

 Incorrect 

No, D is not the TibialCondyle.

The Tibialcondylesare shown in this x-ray.

Remember: there are 2 of them and they form part of the stifle joint

Try again!

Choose a new question.

Tibial

condyle

Tibialcondyle


Dog stifle q4

Dog Stifle Q4

  • (i) What is A?

    • Popliteal sesamoid

    • Fabella

    • Patella

  • (ii) What is B?

    • Popliteal sesamoids

    • Fabellae

    • Patella

  • (iii) Do you know what the shock absorbing structures found in the stifle are called?

    • Answer.

A

B


Correct11

 Correct 

  • Yes! A is the Patella!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (ii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Patella


Incorrect22

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not the Popliteal Sesamoid.

  • The Popliteal Sesamoid is shown here

    • Remember: it is located in the Popliteus Muscle.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Popliteal sesamoid


Incorrect23

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not a Fabella.

    • The Fabellae are shown here.

      • Remember: these are located in the tendons of origin of the gastrocnemius muscle

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Fabellae


Correct12

 Correct 

  • Yes! B are the Fabellae!

  • Here is another example.

    • Remember: these are located in the tendons of origin of the gastrocnemius muscle

  • Try (iii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Fabellae


Incorrect24

 Incorrect 

  • No, B is not the Popliteal Sesamoid.

  • The Popliteal Sesamoid is shown here

    • Remember: it is located in the Popliteus Muscle.

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Popliteal


Incorrect25

 Incorrect 

Patella

  • No, B is not the Patella.

  • The Patella is found on the Cranial aspect of the Stifle.

    • Remember: it is associated with the quadriceps muscle

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.


Answer1

Answer

  • The shock absorbing structures inside the stifle joint are the Menisci (*).

  • Did you know: a common causes of hindlimb lameness in dogs is Cranial Cruciate Ligament (+) Rupture.

  • This often also causes the Menisci to tear although this may go unnoticed.

  • Try Dog Tarsus Q5!

  • Choose a new question.

*

*

+


Dog tarsus q5

Dog Tarsus Q5

  • (i) What is A?

    • Talus

    • Calcaneus

  • (ii) What is B?

    • Talus

    • Central tarsal bone

    • Fourth tarsal bone

  • (iii) What is C?

    • Third tarsal bone

    • Central tarsal bone

    • Fourth tarsal bone

A

C

B


Correct13

 Correct 

  • Yes! A is Calcaneus!

  • Here is another example.

    • Remember: the common calcanean tendon inserts onto this bone

  • Try (ii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Calcaneus


Incorrect26

 Incorrect 

  • No, A is not Talus.

  • The Talus is shown in this x-ray.

    • Remember: it articulates with the tibia to form the high motion component of the hock joint

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new question.

Talus


Correct14

 Correct 

  • Yes! B is the Central Tarsal Bone!

  • Here is another example.

  • Try (iii)!

  • Choose a new question.

Central


Incorrect27

 Incorrect 

  • No, B is not Talus.

  • The Talus is shown in this x-ray.

    • Remember: it articulates with the tibia to form the high motion component of the hock joint

  • Try again!

  • Choose a new region.

  • Talus


    Incorrect28

     Incorrect 

    • No, B is not the Fourth Tarsal Bone.

    • The Fourth Tarsal Bone is shown in this x-ray.

      • Remember: it spans the middle and distal rows of tarsal bones

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Fourth


    Correct15

     Correct 

    • Yes! C is the Fourth Tarsal Bone!

    • Here is another example.

    • Try Dog Foot Q6!

    • Choose a new region.

    Fourth


    Incorrect29

     Incorrect 

    • No, C is not the Third Tarsal Bone.

    • The Third Tarsal Bone is shown in this x-ray.

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Third


    Incorrect30

     Incorrect 

    • No, C is not the Central Tarsal Bone.

    • The Central Tarsal Bone is shown in this x-ray.

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Central


    Dog foot q6

    Dog Foot Q6

    • (i) What is A?

      • Proximal Phalanx

      • Middle Phalanx

      • Distal Phalanx

    • (ii) What is B?

      • 3rd Metacarpal Bone

      • 3rd Metatarsal Bone

    • (iii) What is C?

      • Ungual Process

      • Proximal Sesamoids

      • Digital pad

    B

    C

    A


    Correct16

     Correct 

    • Yes! A is the Proximal Phalanx!

    • Here are others examples.

    • Try (ii)!

    • Choose a new question.

    Proximal Phalanx


    Incorrect31

     Incorrect 

    • No, B is not the Middle Phalanx.

    • The Middle Phalanx is shown in this x-ray.

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Middle Phalanx

    Middle Phalanx


    Incorrect32

     Incorrect 

    • No, A is not the Distal Phalanx.

    • The Distal Phalanx is shown in this x-ray.

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Distal Phalanx

    Distal Phalanx


    Correct17

     Correct 

    • Yes! B is the 3rd Metatarsal Bone!

    • Here is another example.

    • Try (iii)!

    • Choose a new question.

    3rd Metatarsal


    Incorrect33

     Incorrect 

    • No, B is not the 3rd Metacarpal Bone.

    • Remember: Carpal refers to the Carpus which is found in the Forelimb!

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    3rd Metacarpal


    Correct18

     Correct 

    • Yes! C is the Proximal Sesamoids!

    • Here is another example.

      • Remember: these are located on the plantar aspect of the metatarso-phalangeal joint

    • Look at the Comparative Section!

    • Choose a new question.

    Proximal Sesamoids


    Incorrect34

     Incorrect 

    • No, C is not the Ungual Process.

    • The Ungual Process is shown in this x-ray.

      • Remember: its function is to support the structure of the claw

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Ungual Process


    Incorrect35

     Incorrect 

    • No, C is not the Digital Pad.

    • Digital pads are shown in this x-ray.

    • Try again!

    • Choose a new question.

    Digital

    pads


    Cat hindlimb differences

    Cat Hindlimb - Differences

    The Patella, in the cat, is more pointed than in the dog.

    2

    3

    4

    1

    The cat’s pelvis is more box-shaped than the dog’s.

    1. Patella – always present

    2. Medial fabella – small/may be absent

    3. Lateral fabella - usually present

    4. Poplitealsesamoid – may be absent

    Horse Comparative!


    Horse hindlimb differences

    Horse Hindlimb - Differences

    Ca

    Ta

    Ce

    4th

    Splint bone

    3rd

    The 3rd Metatarsal bears weight.

    The 2nd and 4th Metatarsal are non-weightbearing and fused to the 3rdMetatarsal bone - they are known as ‘splint bones’.

    The 1st and 2nd Tarsal bones are fused. The rest are present.

    Horse Comparative 2!


    Horse hindlimb differences 2

    Horse Hindlimb - Differences 2

    Proximal sesamoids

    Distal Sesamoid or ‘Navicular’

    Ruminant Comparative!


    Ruminant hindlimb differences

    Ruminant Hindlimb - Differences

    Central and 4th Tarsal bones are fused.

    2nd and 3rd Tarsal bones are fused

    Cow: Medial Trochlear

    Ridge larger than lateral.

    3rd and 4th Metatarsal bones are fused.

    3rd and 4th digits are weight-bearing.

    Pig Comparative!


    Pig hindlimb differences

    Pig Hindlimb - Differences

    All tarsal bones present.

    3rdand 4thMetatarsal are not fused.

    3rd and 4thdigits are weight-bearing.

    2nd and 5th metatarsals present but non-weight bearing.

    2ndand 5thdigits non-weight bearing - do not touch the ground!

    Back to the Start!


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