Assalaamu 'Alaikum. Welcome. Thesis Draft Seminar. By: Hasdar. Communication Strategies Applied by Eleventh Year Learners of SMK N egeri 2 Enrekang in Speaking Class. Title. I. INTRODUCTION. A.BACKGROUND B.PROBLEM STATEMENT C.OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
Thesis Draft Seminar
Communication Strategies Applied by Eleventh Year Learners of SMKNegeri 2 Enrekang in Speaking Class
C.OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
D.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
E.SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The objectives of English Language Teaching atSMK stated in the KTSP Curriculum are:
Foreign language learners may encounter various communication problems when their interlanguage, English is limited. In such situation the learners shoud use various speaking strategies to help them keep on speaking(Bialystok, 1990; Dornyei, 1995)
Communicative competence consists of four components of competence, namely:
sociolinguistic competence, and
Canale and Swain (1980)
The teachers usually pay attention only on grammatical competence, discourse competence, and sociolinguistic competence to support students’ ability to communicate, while the contribution of strategic competence is usually ignored in the process.
After years of learning English, some students of SMK Negeri 2 Enrekang are neither fluent nor confident English speakers. Some factors that may contribute to this problem are such as:
the ignorance of communication strategies,
the limited time for oral practice in the classrooms,
the lack of conversational opportunities outside the classroom.
Foreign language learners sometimes do not realize that they are applyng certain strategies in their conversation in order to make the communication run well.
A: “I think the hospital in Aceh cannot,. .cannot,.. (Eee...Apa lagi kalau “menampung “?)
A: I think the hospital in Aceh cannot accommodate all of the Tsunami victims”.
In this case, it is clear that A was able to anticipate the problem by one of the communication strategies, namely Seek Help, combined with code-switching
The communication strategies used by the learners in speaking class has become an interesting fenomena due to the students’ lack of language competency but on the other hand they are expected to communicate in English as the end goal of English teaching at SMK, that the students can communicate in English, oral and verbal, at intermediate level.
B. Problem Statement
The fenomena of students’ way of speaking due to the lack of speaking proficiency grammatical competence, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic competence. Faerch and Kasper propose that certain strategies such as generalization and word coinage could directly contribute to second language acquisition because they help learners to develop their interlanguage system by establishing hypothetical rules.
The Research Questions:
C. Objective of the Research
To find out what kinds of strategies the learners use during the speaking class.
To find out the contribution of the communication strategies to improve learners’ English Proficiency.
D. Significant of the Research
The result of this study would give contribution as follows:
the use of communication strategies in the teaching of speaking, especially in vocational high school
which communication strategies should be highly emphasized to the EFL learners according their English proficiency
E. Scope of the Research
Communication strategies analysis based on the work of Gabriele Kasper and William Littlewood.
Communication strategies contribution to learners’ English proficiency reflected by their school report cards, 1st and 2nd Semester.
Some previous findings related to this research
Communicative competence includes four components of competences, (Canale & Swain, 1980).
The Nature of Communication Strategies
Communication strategies are “potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal” (Faerch & Kasper, 1983)
“The term Communication strategies relates to a mutual attempt of two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situations where requisite meaning structures do not seem to be shared(Tarone, 1983)
The Framework of Communication Strategies
Communication Strategies According to Kasper (1983)
Space & Time Description
Communication Strategies According to Dornyei (1995)
Communication Strategies According to Littlewood (1984)
2.Adjusting the message
5.Creating a new word
6.Switching to the native language.
7.Using non-linguistic resources.
Fernandez Dobao (2001:41)
Proficiency level has a strong but not defenitive influence on frequency and choice of strategies.
The different native language of their subjects do not have a clear influence on their strategic behaviour, although further research seems to be needed in order to clarify this issue.
Certain task-related factors such as cognitive complexity and interlocutor’s role have a significant effect on the use that foreign language learners make of communication strategies.
Both the lecturer and the students used seven of eight communication strategies from Littlewood (1984)
The use of communication strategies can help the lecturer and students to practice their English more fluent, gain new information about what is appropriate, and continue communicating in English
III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The population of this study is the eleventh year students of SMK Negeri 2 Enrekang. The total number of the population is 21 students. The researcher will apply the total sampling of the eleventh year students. The observations will take place in the class room and outside the classroom where the students can speak freely and naturally.
D. INSTRUMENTS OF THE RESEARCH
1. Score list form
to determine the students’ proficiency on English.
2. Handy camera
to record the students performance in speaking
3. Form of communication strategies
to classify the communication strategies applied by the learners