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Assalaamu 'Alaikum. Welcome. Thesis Draft Seminar. By: Hasdar. Communication Strategies Applied by Eleventh Year Learners of SMK N egeri 2 Enrekang in Speaking Class. Title. I. INTRODUCTION. A.BACKGROUND B.PROBLEM STATEMENT C.OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

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Assalaamu alaikum

Assalaamu 'Alaikum...

Welcome

Thesis Draft Seminar

By: Hasdar


Assalaamu alaikum

Communication Strategies Applied by Eleventh Year Learners of SMKNegeri 2 Enrekang in Speaking Class

Title


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I. INTRODUCTION

A.BACKGROUND

B.PROBLEM STATEMENT

C.OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

D.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH

E.SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH


A background

A. BACKGROUND

The objectives of English Language Teaching atSMK stated in the KTSP Curriculum are:

  • Mastering the knowledge and based English skills to support the students’ specialization program competency.

  • Applying their knowledge and based English skills mastery to communicate in English, oral and verbal, at intermediate level. (Dokumen KTSP SMKN 2Enrekang: 2008).

Foreign language learners may encounter various communication problems when their interlanguage, English is limited. In such situation the learners shoud use various speaking strategies to help them keep on speaking(Bialystok, 1990; Dornyei, 1995)


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Communicative competence consists of four components of competence, namely:

grammatical competence,

discourse competence,

sociolinguistic competence, and

strategic competence.

Canale and Swain (1980)

The teachers usually pay attention only on grammatical competence, discourse competence, and sociolinguistic competence to support students’ ability to communicate, while the contribution of strategic competence is usually ignored in the process.


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After years of learning English, some students of SMK Negeri 2 Enrekang are neither fluent nor confident English speakers. Some factors that may contribute to this problem are such as:

the ignorance of communication strategies,

the limited time for oral practice in the classrooms,

the lack of conversational opportunities outside the classroom.


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Foreign language learners sometimes do not realize that they are applyng certain strategies in their conversation in order to make the communication run well.

For example:

A: “I think the hospital in Aceh cannot,. .cannot,.. (Eee...Apa lagi kalau “menampung “?)

H: “accommodate’.

A: I think the hospital in Aceh cannot accommodate all of the Tsunami victims”.

In this case, it is clear that A was able to anticipate the problem by one of the communication strategies, namely Seek Help, combined with code-switching


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The communication strategies used by the learners in speaking class has become an interesting fenomena due to the students’ lack of language competency but on the other hand they are expected to communicate in English as the end goal of English teaching at SMK, that the students can communicate in English, oral and verbal, at intermediate level.


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B. Problem Statement

The fenomena of students’ way of speaking due to the lack of speaking proficiency grammatical competence, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic competence. Faerch and Kasper propose that certain strategies such as generalization and word coinage could directly contribute to second language acquisition because they help learners to develop their interlanguage system by establishing hypothetical rules.


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The Research Questions:

  • What communication strategies are applied by the tenth year student of Technical Support and Networking of SMK Negeri2Enrekang during their Speaking Class?

  • To what extent do communication strategies improve learners’ English proficiency?


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C. Objective of the Research

To find out what kinds of strategies the learners use during the speaking class.

To find out the contribution of the communication strategies to improve learners’ English Proficiency.


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D. Significant of the Research

The result of this study would give contribution as follows:

the use of communication strategies in the teaching of speaking, especially in vocational high school

which communication strategies should be highly emphasized to the EFL learners according their English proficiency


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E. Scope of the Research

Communication strategies analysis based on the work of Gabriele Kasper and William Littlewood.

Communication strategies contribution to learners’ English proficiency reflected by their school report cards, 1st and 2nd Semester.


Ii review of related literature

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • REVIEW OF RELATED THEORY

  • The Nature of the Communication

  • The Nature of Communication Strategies

  • The Framework of Communication Strategies

  • Some Related Research Finding

    Some previous findings related to this research


A review of related theory

A. REVIEW OF RELATED THEORY

  • The Nature of the Communication

  • Communication using languages can be conducted in two ways: orally and in a written form

Harmer (1991)


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Communicative competence includes four components of competences, (Canale & Swain, 1980).


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The Nature of Communication Strategies

Communication strategies are “potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal” (Faerch & Kasper, 1983)

“The term Communication strategies relates to a mutual attempt of two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situations where requisite meaning structures do not seem to be shared(Tarone, 1983)


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The Framework of Communication Strategies

Communication Strategies According to Kasper (1983)

Appearance Description

Characteristics Description

Space & Time Description

Function Description

Meta-language Description

Contextual Clues

Superordinate

Word coinage


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Communication Strategies According to Dornyei (1995)

  • Message abandonment

  • Topic avoidance

  • Circumlocution

  • Approximation

  • Use of all-purpose words

  • Word coinage

  • Use of nonlinguistic means

  • Literal translation

  • Foreignizing

  • Code switching

  • Appeal for help

  • Use of fillers/ hesitation devices


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Communication Strategies According to Littlewood (1984)

1.Avoiding Communication

2.Adjusting the message

3.Using paraphrase

4.Using approximation

5.Creating a new word

6.Switching to the native language.

7.Using non-linguistic resources.

8.Seeking help


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  • B. Some Related Research Finding

  • Huang (2010:100) found that:

  • Students mostly employed the message reduction and alternation strategies in their conversation, while the communication strategies of message abandonment strategies was the least.

  • Neither gender nor English proficiency influenced the choice of communication strategies.

  • Students’ self-perceived oral proficiency, frequent use of English in speaking, and motivation in speaking English were significantly correlated with the use of communication strategies.


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Fernandez Dobao (2001:41)

Proficiency level has a strong but not defenitive influence on frequency and choice of strategies.

The different native language of their subjects do not have a clear influence on their strategic behaviour, although further research seems to be needed in order to clarify this issue.

Certain task-related factors such as cognitive complexity and interlocutor’s role have a significant effect on the use that foreign language learners make of communication strategies.


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Nurhayati (2010)

Both the lecturer and the students used seven of eight communication strategies from Littlewood (1984)

The use of communication strategies can help the lecturer and students to practice their English more fluent, gain new information about what is appropriate, and continue communicating in English


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III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • OPERATIONAL DEFENITIONS OF THE TERMS

  • POPULATION AND SAMPLE

  • INSTRUMENTS OF THE RESEARCH

  • PROCEDURE OF COLLECTING DATA

  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS


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  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • The study is mostly qualitative-descriptive since the data are in the form of words.

  • While to find out the contributions of communication strategies to the learners’ English proficiency, the writer will apply quantitative approach.

  • This research is a mixed research method, inductive and deductive research.


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  • B. OPERATIONAL DEFENITIONS OF THE TERMS

  • Communication strategies, a tool used by the learners to express the meaning in English when the learners encounter a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal.

  • Speaking Class, a regular schedule on teaching English where the speaking skill become the focus of the teaching and evaluation. The setting could be inside or outside the classroom.


C population and sample

C. POPULATION AND SAMPLE

The population of this study is the eleventh year students of SMK Negeri 2 Enrekang. The total number of the population is 21 students. The researcher will apply the total sampling of the eleventh year students. The observations will take place in the class room and outside the classroom where the students can speak freely and naturally.


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D. INSTRUMENTS OF THE RESEARCH

1. Score list form

to determine the students’ proficiency on English.

2. Handy camera

to record the students performance in speaking

3. Form of communication strategies

to classify the communication strategies applied by the learners


E procedure of collecting data

E. PROCEDURE OF COLLECTING DATA

  • Determining the students’ English proficiency based on their scores on the school report card

  • Recording the students’ performance on speaking during the speaking class.

  • Making a transcript from the recorded data

  • Analyzingthe Communication strategies applied.

  • Analyzing the strategies which are used mostly by the students


F method of data analysis

F. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

  • Analizing the students’scores on their school report card

  • Identifying the communication strategies, whether it is a strategy or not.

  • Classifying all the data based on the eight communication strategies proposed by Kasper and Littlewood


Thank you

Thank You


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