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What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. When Schools Account for 10% of Achievement Variance. When Schools Account for 20% of Achievement Variance. When Schools Account for 50% of Achievement Variance. School. Teacher. Student. Factors Influencing Achievement.

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What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action

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What works in schools translating research into action

What Works in Schools:

Translating Research into Action


When schools account for 10 of achievement variance

When Schools Account for 10% of Achievement Variance


When schools account for 20 of achievement variance

When Schools Account for 20% of Achievement Variance


When schools account for 50 of achievement variance

When Schools Account for 50% of Achievement Variance


What works in schools translating research into action

School

Teacher

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

9. Home Environment

10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11 Motivation


What works in schools translating research into action

Leadership

Leadership

Leadership

Leadership

Factors Influencing Achievement

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

3. Parent and Community Involvement

4. Safe and Orderly Environment

5. Collegiality and Professionalism

School

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

Teacher

9. Home Environment

10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11 Motivation

Student


What works in schools translating research into action

The average correlation between

principal leadership behavior and

school achievement is

.25

which means….


What works in schools translating research into action

The average correlation between

principal leadership behavior and

school achievement is

.25

which means….

a one standard deviation increase in

principal leadership is associated

(in a predictive sense)

with

a 10 percentile point gain in school

achievement.


Power and sample size

Power and Sample Size


The test statistic 1 64

The Test Statistic (1.64)


Rosenthal 1969

Rosenthal (1969)

  • 94 studies

  • Average value of test statistic=1.014

  • Combined value = 9.83

  • Failsafe N= 3,263


Factors mediating leadership behavior

Factors Mediating Leadership Behavior

Focus of the change

and

Order of the change


What works in schools translating research into action

School

Teacher

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

9. Home Environment

10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11 Motivation


29 csr models borman et al 2003

29 CSR ModelsBorman et al (2003)

  • Personnel costs: $13K ($0 to $208K)

  • Non-personnel costs: $72K ($15K to $780K)


Variability of effect sizes

Variability of Effect Sizes

  • Average: d= .15

  • Range: -2.13 to +7.83

  • 35% of effect sizes were below zero


Factors mediating leadership behavior1

Factors Mediating Leadership Behavior

Focus of the change

and

Order of the change


Leadership for incremental change

Leadership for Incremental Change

  • Emphasize relationships

  • Establish strong lines of communication

  • Be an advocate for the school

  • Provide resources

  • Maintain visibility

  • Protect teachers from distractions

  • Create culture of collaboration

  • Look for and celebrate successes


Leadership for second order change

Leadership for Second Order Change

  • Shake up the status quo

  • Hold everyone’s feet to the fire

  • Propose new ideas

  • Operate from strong beliefs

  • Tolerate ambiguity and dissent

  • Talk research and theory

  • Create explicit goals for change

  • Define success in terms of goals


What works in schools translating research into action

School

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

School

1.Guaranteed and

Viable Curriculum

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

If you wanted to teach all of the standards in the national documents, you would have to change schooling from K-12 to K-22.

  • 255 standards across 14 subject areas

  • 3,500 benchmarks

  • 13,000 hours of class time available

  • 9,000 hours of instruction available

  • 15,500 hours of instruction needed to cover the 3,500 benchmarks


What works in schools translating research into action

School

2.Challenging Goals and

Effective Feedback

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

School

3. Parent and Community

Involvement

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

School

4. Safe and Orderly

Environment

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

School

5. Collegiality and Professionalism

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

School

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


What works in schools translating research into action

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


What works in schools translating research into action

6. Instructional Strategies

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


What works in schools translating research into action

works

Classroom Instruction That

Identifying similarities and differences

Summarizing and note taking

Reinforcing effort and providing recognition

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic Representations

Cooperative Learning

Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers


What works in schools translating research into action

7. Classroom Management

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


What works in schools translating research into action

7. Classroom Management

Classroom management is defined as teachers’ actions related to

  • Establishing and enforcing rules and procedures ES = -.76,P28

ii.Carrying out disciplinary actions ES =-.91,P32

iii.Maintaining effective teacher-student relationships, and ES=-.87,P31

iv.Maintaining an appropriate mental set ES= -1.29,P40


What works in schools translating research into action

7. Classroom Management

  • Carrying out disciplinary actions

Effect Sizes for Disciplinary Interventions

Reinforcement-.86

Punishment-.78

No immediate consequence-.64

Punishment and reinforcement-.97


What works in schools translating research into action

7. Classroom Management

iii. Maintaining effective teacher-student relationships

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>High DominanceHigh Submission

Clarity of purpose,Lack of clarity, strong guidancepurpose, or direction

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>High Cooperation High Opposition

Concern for needsActive antagonism, of others, team memberthwart others’ goals


Mental set

Mental Set


What works in schools translating research into action

FINAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS

OF DUTIFUL STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH

YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE.


What works in schools translating research into action

FINAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS

OFDUTIFUL STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH

YEARS OFSCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE.


What works in schools translating research into action

7. Classroom Management

iv.Maintaining an appropriate mental set

  • Mental set =

  • “withitness”- the disposition of the teacher to quickly and accurately identify problem behavior and act on it.”

  • emotional objectivity—“…implementing and enforcing rules and procedures…without interpreting violations…as a personal attack.”


Student responsibility

Student Responsibility

a) All strategies ES= -.69, P25

b) Cognitively based ES= -.78, P28

c) Self-monitoring ES= -.50, P23


What works in schools translating research into action

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


Question one what is the essential idea or concept and how will its importance be communicated

Question One: What is the essential idea or concept and how will its importance be communicated


What works in schools translating research into action

Question Two: What are the specific learning goals for the unit and how will they be communicated to students?


Question three what will be done to help students begin thinking about the new content

Question Three: What will be done to help students begin thinking about the new content?


What works in schools translating research into action

Question Four: What are the major activities that will be used to introduce new content to students and how will they be approached?

  • Have students read

  • Have students listen

  • Have students observe or view

  • Have students do


What works in schools translating research into action

EXP

NAR


What works in schools translating research into action

EXP

NAR


What works in schools translating research into action

Question Five: During major activities, what will be done to help students process, encode and construct meaning for new content?

  • Linguistic

  • Non-linguistic


Question six what will be done to help students practice and revise the new content

Question Six: What will be done to help students practice and revise the new content?


Question seven what will be done to help students apply new content

Question Seven: What will be done to help students apply new content?

  • compare and contrast content

  • classify content

  • create metaphors with content

  • create analogies with content

  • solve problems regarding content

  • make decisions regarding content

  • engage in investigations regarding content

  • engage in experimental inquiry regarding content

  • engage in systems analysis regarding content

  • invent things regarding content


Question eight how will grouping of students be used

Question Eight: How will grouping of students be used?

  • Use informal groups

  • Use formal groups

  • Use base groups


What works in schools translating research into action

Question Nine: During the unit and at the end of the unit, how will feedback be provided to students as to their status and progress?


What works in schools translating research into action

Question Ten: During the unit and at the end of the unit, how will success be celebrated and how will effort be recognized and encouraged?

  • Celebrate legitimate success

  • Systematically recognize and encourage effort


What works in schools translating research into action

For which of the teacher-level factors is your school or district in most need of attention and resources?

a) Effective instructional strategies

b) Effective classroom management

c) Effective models of instructional planning


What works in schools translating research into action

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


What works in schools translating research into action

9. Home Environment

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


What works in schools translating research into action

9. Home Environment


What works in schools translating research into action

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


What works in schools translating research into action

11. Motivation

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


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