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What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. When Schools Account for 10% of Achievement Variance. When Schools Account for 20% of Achievement Variance. When Schools Account for 50% of Achievement Variance. School. Teacher. Student. Factors Influencing Achievement.

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What Works in Schools:

Translating Research into Action





School

Teacher

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

9. Home Environment

10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11 Motivation


Leadership

Leadership

Leadership

Leadership

Factors Influencing Achievement

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

3. Parent and Community Involvement

4. Safe and Orderly Environment

5. Collegiality and Professionalism

School

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

Teacher

9. Home Environment

10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11 Motivation

Student


The average correlation between

principal leadership behavior and

school achievement is

.25

which means….


The average correlation between

principal leadership behavior and

school achievement is

.25

which means….

a one standard deviation increase in

principal leadership is associated

(in a predictive sense)

with

a 10 percentile point gain in school

achievement.




Rosenthal 1969
Rosenthal (1969)

  • 94 studies

  • Average value of test statistic=1.014

  • Combined value = 9.83

  • Failsafe N= 3,263


Factors mediating leadership behavior
Factors Mediating Leadership Behavior

Focus of the change

and

Order of the change


School

Teacher

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum 2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback 3. Parent and Community Involvement 4. Safe and Orderly Environment 5. Collegiality and Professionalism

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

9. Home Environment

10. Learning Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11 Motivation


29 csr models borman et al 2003
29 CSR ModelsBorman et al (2003)

  • Personnel costs: $13K ($0 to $208K)

  • Non-personnel costs: $72K ($15K to $780K)


Variability of effect sizes
Variability of Effect Sizes

  • Average: d= .15

  • Range: -2.13 to +7.83

  • 35% of effect sizes were below zero


Factors mediating leadership behavior1
Factors Mediating Leadership Behavior

Focus of the change

and

Order of the change


Leadership for incremental change
Leadership for Incremental Change

  • Emphasize relationships

  • Establish strong lines of communication

  • Be an advocate for the school

  • Provide resources

  • Maintain visibility

  • Protect teachers from distractions

  • Create culture of collaboration

  • Look for and celebrate successes


Leadership for second order change
Leadership for Second Order Change

  • Shake up the status quo

  • Hold everyone’s feet to the fire

  • Propose new ideas

  • Operate from strong beliefs

  • Tolerate ambiguity and dissent

  • Talk research and theory

  • Create explicit goals for change

  • Define success in terms of goals


School

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


School

1.Guaranteed and

Viable Curriculum

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


If you wanted to teach all of the standards in the national documents, you would have to change schooling from K-12 to K-22.

  • 255 standards across 14 subject areas

  • 3,500 benchmarks

  • 13,000 hours of class time available

  • 9,000 hours of instruction available

  • 15,500 hours of instruction needed to cover the 3,500 benchmarks


School documents, you would have to change schooling from

2.Challenging Goals and

Effective Feedback

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


School documents, you would have to change schooling from

3. Parent and Community

Involvement

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


School documents, you would have to change schooling from

4. Safe and Orderly

Environment

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


School documents, you would have to change schooling from

5. Collegiality and Professionalism

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


School documents, you would have to change schooling from

Factors Influencing Achievement

  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback

  • Parent and Community Involvement

  • Safe and Orderly Environment

  • Collegiality and Professionalism


Teacher documents, you would have to change schooling from

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


6. Instructional Strategies documents, you would have to change schooling from

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


works documents, you would have to change schooling from

Classroom Instruction That

Identifying similarities and differences

Summarizing and note taking

Reinforcing effort and providing recognition

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic Representations

Cooperative Learning

Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers


7. Classroom Management documents, you would have to change schooling from

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design


7. Classroom Management documents, you would have to change schooling from

Classroom management is defined as teachers’ actions related to

  • Establishing and enforcing rules and procedures ES = -.76,P28

ii. Carrying out disciplinary actions ES =-.91,P32

iii. Maintaining effective teacher-student relationships, and ES=-.87,P31

iv. Maintaining an appropriate mental set ES= -1.29,P40


7. Classroom Management documents, you would have to change schooling from

  • Carrying out disciplinary actions

Effect Sizes for Disciplinary Interventions

Reinforcement -.86

Punishment -.78

No immediate consequence -.64

Punishment and reinforcement -.97


7. Classroom Management documents, you would have to change schooling from

iii. Maintaining effective teacher-student relationships

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>High DominanceHigh Submission

Clarity of purpose, Lack of clarity, strong guidance purpose, or direction

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>High Cooperation High Opposition

Concern for needs Active antagonism, of others, team member thwart others’ goals


Mental set
Mental Set documents, you would have to change schooling from


FINAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS documents, you would have to change schooling from

OF DUTIFUL STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH

YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE.


F documents, you would have to change schooling from INAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS

OFDUTIFUL STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH

YEARS OFSCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE.


7. Classroom Management documents, you would have to change schooling from

iv. Maintaining an appropriate mental set

  • Mental set =

  • “withitness”- the disposition of the teacher to quickly and accurately identify problem behavior and act on it.”

  • emotional objectivity—“…implementing and enforcing rules and procedures…without interpreting violations…as a personal attack.”


Student responsibility
Student Responsibility documents, you would have to change schooling from

a) All strategies ES= -.69, P25

b) Cognitively based ES= -.78, P28

c) Self-monitoring ES= -.50, P23


8. Classroom Curriculum Design documents, you would have to change schooling from

Teacher

Factors Influencing Achievement

6. Instructional Strategies

7. Classroom Management

8. Classroom Curriculum Design



Question Two: What are the specific learning goals for the unit and how will they be communicated to students?



Question Four: What are the major activities that will be used to introduce new content to students and how will they be approached?

  • Have students read

  • Have students listen

  • Have students observe or view

  • Have students do


EXP used to introduce new content to students and how will they be approached

NAR


EXP used to introduce new content to students and how will they be approached

NAR


Question Five: During major activities, what will be done to help students process, encode and construct meaning for new content?

  • Linguistic

  • Non-linguistic



Question seven what will be done to help students apply new content
Question Seven: What will be done to help students apply new content?

  • compare and contrast content

  • classify content

  • create metaphors with content

  • create analogies with content

  • solve problems regarding content

  • make decisions regarding content

  • engage in investigations regarding content

  • engage in experimental inquiry regarding content

  • engage in systems analysis regarding content

  • invent things regarding content


Question eight how will grouping of students be used
Question Eight: How will grouping of students be used? content?

  • Use informal groups

  • Use formal groups

  • Use base groups


Question Nine: During the unit and at the end of the unit, how will feedback be provided to students as to their status and progress?


Question Ten: During the unit and at the end of the unit, how will success be celebrated and how will effort be recognized and encouraged?

  • Celebrate legitimate success

  • Systematically recognize and encourage effort


For which of the teacher-level factors is your school or district in most need of attention and resources?

a) Effective instructional strategies

b) Effective classroom management

c) Effective models of instructional planning


Student district in most need of attention and resources?

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


9. Home Environment district in most need of attention and resources?

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


9. Home Environment district in most need of attention and resources?


10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


11. Motivation Background Knowledge

Student

Factors Influencing Achievement

9. Home Environment

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

11. Motivation


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