P r escribing and describing
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P r escribing and Describing. Prodi Bahasa Inggris Lecture 2 February 2014. Children’s language at home and school At Home : parents more indulgent/permissive of any deviations made by their children (what the child is saying is idiosyncracy/ characteristic .

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P r escribing and describing

PrescribingandDescribing

Prodi Bahasa Inggris

Lecture 2

February 2014


P r escribing and describing

Children’s language at home and school

At Home:

parents more indulgent/permissive of any deviations made by their children (what the child is saying is idiosyncracy/ characteristic


P r escribing and describing

Children’s language at home and school

At School:

children are expected to use language “correctly” (clearly and properly pronouncing the words, spelling the words correctly, punctuating properly.


P r escribing and describing

Within the school context, what counts to be ‘correct’ is much more complex.

dialects regional and social-class varieties of the language (and seldom written down)

Do you think the teacher should eliminate these dialectal and national varieties  correct the parents as well?


P r escribing and describing

standard form usually used in written communication, taught in school, codified in dictionaries and grammar books.

The most controversial aspect involves the relationship of the standard and dialects.

HOW???


P r escribing and describing

There is no reason why children cannot grow up knowing both a dialect and the standard form, valuing both both in different ways and using them appropriately according to context


P r escribing and describing

Description vs Prescription

Description refers to language used by its people.

Prescription refers to language used as it ought to happen


P r escribing and describing

Description vs Prescription

Description refers to language used naturally by its people.

Prescription refers to language used as it ought to happen

No one form is any more or less correct than another


P r escribing and describing

There must be some preexisting notion of what does and does not count as an example.

Descriptivists may accept some examples of dialectal forms.

Prescriptivists would exclude them.


P r escribing and describing

A linguistic approach to applied linguistics

The evolution of a definition of language

A. Language is a means of communication.

  • What is the medium of this means of communication?

  • Noises in the throat, scribbles on paper, scratches on stone, wigwagging flags, smoke signals, etc. all might "communicate something".

  • What are the primary means of communication?Written or spoken?


P r escribing and describing

B. Language is a written means of communication.

  • Mankind was speaking long before the dawn of recorded history.

  • Great literature was conceived and passed on without the benefit of writing

  • Many people survive without a writing system.

    C. Language is a vocal means of communication

  • Everything we utter is set forth in a meaningful order; in order to have communication, we must have system.

    D. Language is a vocal system of communication.

  • How is the system organized?

  • We must have (a) vocabulary---symbols; (b) grammar grammatical signals.


P r escribing and describing

E. Language is a system of vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication.

  • What is the relation between sound and meaning?

  • Speakers of a language have all agreed arbitrarilyupon the relationship of utterance and concept.

    F. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication.

  • Language is called upon not only for communication, but also for interaction.

    G. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals used for communication, interaction, and cultural transmission.

  • Who uses this instrument for communication, interaction and transmission?


P r escribing and describing

H. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols and grammatical signals by means of which the members of a speech community communicate, interact, and transmit their culture.


Questions if not end of lecture

Questions?If not, End of Lecture


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