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Moving Can. The Challenge: Use the plastic tube and sheet of plastic to move the can without physically touching it. Electrostatics. Chapter 32. Forces. There are four basic kinds of forces: 1) Gravitational 2) Electromagnetic 3) Strong Force 4) Weak Nuclear Force. Forces.

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Moving can

Moving Can

The Challenge:

Use the plastic tube and sheet of plastic to move the can without physically touching it.


Electrostatics

Electrostatics

Chapter 32


Forces

Forces

There are four basic kinds of forces:

1) Gravitational

2) Electromagnetic

3) Strong Force

4) Weak Nuclear Force


Forces1

Forces

Gravitational forces:

- we’ve discussed already this year

- is dependent on the masses of the two objects

- we feel the effect of it as weight


Forces2

Forces

Electromagnetic forces:

- think about magnets; what do you already know?

- like ends repel

- opposites attract

- it’s the same with positive and negative charges!


Forces3

Forces

The Strong Force:

What’s wrong with this picture?


Forces4

Forces

The Strong Force:

Scientists theorized that since the nucleus of an atom contains only positive charges, there must be some kind of force that only applies to very small particles over very small distances to keep them from repelling each other. So they said, “Let’s call it the strong force.”


Forces5

Forces

Weak Nuclear Force:

- pertains to nuclear decay and we will discuss this one at more length later in the year.


Forces6

Forces

So let’s put them in order from strongest to weakest:

1) Strong force

2) Weak nuclear force

3) Electromagnetic forces

4) Gravitational force


Charges

Charges

  • An atom consists of charged particles

    protons = positive; electrons = negative

  • Objects become charged by the addition or removal of electrons

  • Ion = a charged atom


Conservation of charge

Conservation of Charge

Charge is not created out of thin air.

If an object becomes positively charged, it is usually because another becomes negatively charged.

This is conservation of charge.


Charges1

Charges

Charged objects attract or repel each other with electrical forces


Charges2

Charges

Like charges repel.


Charges3

Charges

Opposite charges attract.


Coulomb s law

Coulomb’s Law

French physicist Charles Coulomb

Developed the equation for calculating electrical force between charges

Coulomb’s constant:

k = 9 X 109 Nm2/C2


Moving can

Object A has a positive charge of 9.0 X 10-6 C. Object B, having a positive charge of 4.5 X 10-6 C, is 0.030 m away. Calculate the force on A.

What is the force on B?


Electric field lines

Electric Field Lines

From yesterday’s activity, we could tell that force vectors around a charge look something like this:


Electric field lines1

Electric Field Lines

This is what the electric field lines look like around positive and negative charges:


Electric field lines2

Electric Field Lines

This is how the field lines interact for two opposite charges positioned near each other:


Electric field lines3

Electric Field Lines

What would it look like for two similar charges positioned near each other?


Electric field lines4

Electric Field Lines

What would it look like if to flat plates were place near each other, one positively charged, the other negatively?


Conductors

Conductors

Electrons are free to move within conductors.

Metals are good conductors.


Insulators

Insulators

Materials that have electrons tightly bound to their atoms. They are less likely to move around.

Glass and rubber are good insulators


Methods of charging

Methods of Charging

Friction

* most common

* electrons are being transferred from one material to another

* like scooting your feet on the carpet


Methods of charging1

Methods of Charging

Contact

* electrons can be transferred from one material to another

* when a charged object comes in contact with a neutral object


Methods of charging2

Methods of Charging

Induction

* using a charged object to create a charge in two others by separation


Methods of charging3

Methods of Charging

Induction with Grounding

* using a charged object to cause a separation of charges in a neutral object and then either removing or adding electrons by putting in contact with the ground


Methods of charging4

Methods of Charging

The bottom of a negatively charged cloud induces a positive charge at the surface of the ground below.

This leads to lightning so the cloud discharges.


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