Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. What are genes?. Gene: coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein in the cell. We can’t do anything without proteins.  Instructions for telling our bodies what to do!. Genes = Instructions. What are genes?. DNA. ONLY found in the nucleus.

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Protein Synthesis

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Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis


What are genes

What are genes?

  • Gene: coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein in the cell

We can’t do anything without proteins.

 Instructions for telling our bodies what to do!

Genes = Instructions


What are genes1

What are genes?


Protein synthesis

DNA

  • ONLY found in the nucleus

  • Instructions found in nucleotide sequence of DNA

PROTEIN

  • Synthesized OUTSIDE the nucleus

  • BUT……

  • Need to get instructions out of nucleus

  • HOW?!?!?!


Dna vs rna

DNA vs RNA

RNA CAN move out of the nucleus to other parts of the cell

Decode DNA into RNA


Dna vs rna1

DNA vs RNA

3 Differences


Protein synthesis

RNA

3 Types of RNA involved in synthesizing proteins

1. mRNA (messenger RNA)

  • Carries copies of instructions from DNA

  • to other parts of cell

 From nucleus to cytoplasm


Protein synthesis

RNA

2. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

Sits in ribosome and decodes mRNA into amino acids (proteins)


Protein synthesis

RNA

Ribosomes

3. tRNA (transfer RNA)

  • Transfers amino acids (AA)

  • to ribosomes

  • Protein factory

  • Proteins =

  • AA+AA+AA+AA+AA……….


Transcription rna synthesis

Transcription (RNA Synthesis)

  • Process of copying DNA nucleotide sequence into COMPLEMENTARY RNA nucleotides.

STEPS:

RNA polymerase attaches

to area of DNA molecule.

RNA poly “opens” DNA molecule.

3.RNA poly synthesizes

complementary RNA

nucleotides (mRNA).


Transcription rna synthesis1

Transcription (RNA Synthesis)

Base Pairing Rules

Nucleotides in DNA:

A TCG

Nucleotides in RNA:

A UCG


Protein synthesis

Video


Translation protein synthesis

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

  • Decoding mRNA molecules to make

  • proteins (AA/polypeptides)

TRANSLATING RNA sequence into protein sequence

 Occurs on the ribosome

 Uses all 3 RNAs


Translation protein synthesis1

Translation (Protein Synthesis)


Translation protein synthesis2

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

STEPS:

mRNA in cytoplasm attaches to ribosome.


Translation protein synthesis3

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

2.mRNA codon moves through ribosome.


Translation protein synthesis4

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

3.tRNA (anticodon) brings matching AA.

CODON

ANTIcodon


Translation protein synthesis5

Translation (Protein Synthesis)

  • Stopping and Starting

  • START CODON = AUG

  • STOP CODON = UGA, UAG, UAA


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