Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. What are genes?. Gene: coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein in the cell. We can’t do anything without proteins.  Instructions for telling our bodies what to do!. Genes = Instructions. What are genes?. DNA. ONLY found in the nucleus.

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Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis


What are genes?

  • Gene: coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein in the cell

We can’t do anything without proteins.

 Instructions for telling our bodies what to do!

Genes = Instructions


What are genes?


DNA

  • ONLY found in the nucleus

  • Instructions found in nucleotide sequence of DNA

PROTEIN

  • Synthesized OUTSIDE the nucleus

  • BUT……

  • Need to get instructions out of nucleus

  • HOW?!?!?!


DNA vs RNA

RNA CAN move out of the nucleus to other parts of the cell

Decode DNA into RNA


DNA vs RNA

3 Differences


RNA

3 Types of RNA involved in synthesizing proteins

1. mRNA (messenger RNA)

  • Carries copies of instructions from DNA

  • to other parts of cell

 From nucleus to cytoplasm


RNA

2. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

Sits in ribosome and decodes mRNA into amino acids (proteins)


RNA

Ribosomes

3. tRNA (transfer RNA)

  • Transfers amino acids (AA)

  • to ribosomes

  • Protein factory

  • Proteins =

  • AA+AA+AA+AA+AA……….


Transcription (RNA Synthesis)

  • Process of copying DNA nucleotide sequence into COMPLEMENTARY RNA nucleotides.

STEPS:

RNA polymerase attaches

to area of DNA molecule.

RNA poly “opens” DNA molecule.

3.RNA poly synthesizes

complementary RNA

nucleotides (mRNA).


Transcription (RNA Synthesis)

Base Pairing Rules

Nucleotides in DNA:

A TCG

Nucleotides in RNA:

A UCG


Video


Translation (Protein Synthesis)

  • Decoding mRNA molecules to make

  • proteins (AA/polypeptides)

TRANSLATING RNA sequence into protein sequence

 Occurs on the ribosome

 Uses all 3 RNAs


Translation (Protein Synthesis)


Translation (Protein Synthesis)

STEPS:

mRNA in cytoplasm attaches to ribosome.


Translation (Protein Synthesis)

2.mRNA codon moves through ribosome.


Translation (Protein Synthesis)

3.tRNA (anticodon) brings matching AA.

CODON

ANTIcodon


Translation (Protein Synthesis)

  • Stopping and Starting

  • START CODON = AUG

  • STOP CODON = UGA, UAG, UAA


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