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Behavior Interventions EDSP. Presented by Michelle Antle, Simpson Co.; Marty Boman, WKU; Sandy Hackbarth, LifeSkills; Connie Miller, Warren Co..; & Debra Myers, CESC. Behavior Intervention & ASD.

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behavior interventions edsp

Behavior InterventionsEDSP

Presented by

Michelle Antle, Simpson Co.; Marty Boman, WKU; Sandy Hackbarth, LifeSkills; Connie Miller, Warren Co..; & Debra Myers, CESC.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

behavior intervention asd
Behavior Intervention & ASD

If mechanisms for behavior change are applicable across individuals despite their unique characteristics (e.g., autism, learning disabilities, mental retardation),

What is special about ASD?

Prepared by KATC (2010)

behavior intervention
Behavior Intervention

It is important to consider that for many individuals with ASD, problem behavior is a result of a lack of knowledge of “what to do” to most effectively access reinforcement.

What types of things do we attempt to access in our daily lives?

Prepared by KATC (2010)

behavior intervention4
Behavior Intervention

This module will place a heavy emphasis on reinforcement-based interventions.

Recognition of behavior as communication and then teaching the “what to do.”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

preference assessment
Preference-assessment

Any effective behavior change program starts with the identification of possible reinforcers.

Sometimes interventionists may take the view that a student did not respond to the delivered reinforcer, it might be more beneficial to take the alternative view that the interventionist may have failed to identify an effective reinforcer.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

getting started review
Getting Started: Review

Behavior change involves the manipulation of

antecedents, consequences, or both.

A B C

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent interventions
Antecedent Interventions

Behavior change involves the manipulation of

antecedents.

A B C

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent interventions8
Antecedent Interventions

Produce change through the arrangement of antecedent events to get the student in contact with reinforcement for desirable behavior.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent interventions9
Antecedent Interventions

Set clear behavioral expectations

for all students.

Consider the individualized needs of learners when delivering expectations .

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent interventions10
Antecedent Interventions

Tell students your expectations.

Secure attention prior to speaking.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent interventions11
Antecedent Interventions

Tell students your expectations

Speak clearly and concisely

“Sit” Vs.

“Sit down in your chair and show me you are ready to work”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention
Antecedent Intervention

Tell students your expectations.

Use behavioral language

Avoid statements like:

“ Respect your classmates”

“Use good hands”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent interventions13
Antecedent Interventions

Tell students your expectations.

Decrease the amount of time between the presentation of the expectation and the opportunity for the student respond.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention14
Antecedent Intervention

Show students your expectations.

Consider literacy skills

and corresponding formats

(e.g., words, drawings, pictures, objects) .

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention15
Antecedent Intervention

Show students your expectations.

Consider various Visual Supports to tell students what they are expected to do:

Environmental Arrangements

Cue Cards

Checklists

Visual Schedules

Social Narratives

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention16
Antecedent Intervention

Show students your expectations.

Consider clarifying expectations

related to time.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention17
Antecedent Intervention

High Probability Request Sequence

Teacher presents a series of easy-to-follow requests for which the participant has a history of compliance.

When the learner complies with several

high-p requests, the teacher immediately gives the target request.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
a ntecedent intervention18
Antecedent Intervention

High Probability Request Sequence

Teacher says” Give me Five”

Teacher says, “Look at me”

Teacher says, “What color”

Teacher says, “Spell Blue”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention19
Antecedent Intervention

High Probability Request Sequence

Selectskills already in the

learners repertoire.

Balance the use of High-P requests

with instructional efficiency.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention activity
Antecedent Intervention-Activity

Activity

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention21
Antecedent Intervention

Offering choice

Often individuals with disabilities may not be provided opportunities to make choices.

Consider your life without the ability

to make choices.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention22
Antecedent Intervention

Offering choice

  • Reinforcers
  • Materials
  • Order of instructional tasks
  • Partners/Peers
  • Locations

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention23
Antecedent Intervention

(Cooper et al., 2007)

Noncontingent Reinforcement (NCR)

Reinforcers are delivered on a

fixed time (FT) or variable-time (VT) schedule independent of the

learners behavior

How does this work?

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention24
Antecedent Intervention

Noncontingent Reinforcement

Noncontingent Reinforcement(NCR)

Remember motivating operations

The idea is that if reinforcement is readily available then the student will not have to engage in problem behavior to access it.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention25
Antecedent Intervention

(Cooper et al., 2007)

Increasing the effectiveness of NCR

  • Conduct a FBA to determine

reinforcers maintaining problem behavior.

  • Identify powerful reinforcers

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a ntecedent intervention26
Antecedent Intervention

Set interval slightly below the quotient

= 6 min = 4 min

Increasing the effectiveness of NCR:

  • By setting an effective schedule-

Observation time

Occurrences

3 hours( 180 min)

30 occurrences

Prepared by KATC (2010)

(Cooper et al., 2007)

a ntecedent intervention27
Antecedent Intervention

Increasing the effectiveness of NCR

  • Combine with extinction procedures.
  • Withhold reinforcement briefly if interval ends at the same time as a problem occurs.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
a ntecedent intervention28
Antecedent Intervention

Arg, I can’t keep up this pace!

Thinning the Schedule

Increase the interval in response to student behavior change

  • Constant time
  • Proportional increase
  • Session to session

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
c onsequent interventions
Consequent Interventions

Behavior change involves the manipulation of consequences.

A B C

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions30
Consequent Interventions

Extinction

When reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued, and as a result the frequency of that behavior decreases in the future.

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions31
Consequent Interventions

Extinction

It is critical that an FBA be conducted to determine the function of the behavior or the reinforcement maintaining the behavior.

What might this look like for

  • Positive reinforcement
  • Escape

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions32
Consequent Interventions

“Extinction burst”

Extinction procedures are often followed by an immediate increase in the frequency or intensity of a target behavior.

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions33
Consequent Interventions

Using extinction effectively

  • Withhold all reinforcers for the

problem behavior

  • Be consistent
  • Consider using instructions

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions34
Consequent Interventions

Using extinction effectively

  • Prepare for the the burst.
  • Increase the number of opportunities to use extinction
  • Do not use for extreme behaviors

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions35
Consequent Interventions

Differential Reinforcement (DR)

One of the most powerful tools in a teacher’s intervention repertoire. It stands at the foundation for learning

Prepared by KATC (2010)

c onsequent interventions36
Consequent Interventions

Reinforcement

  • Types
  • Limited Access
  • Amount
  • Behavioral Criterion

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

c onsequent interventions37
Consequent Interventions

Seven Considerations in Using Reinforcement

  • Immediacy
  • Schedule
  • Amount
  • Pairing
  • Proximity
  • Labeling
  • Expressiveness

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

c onsequent interventions38
Consequent Interventions

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Schedules of Reinforcement

  • How often person gets SR+ for a correct response.
    • Continuous – Every correct response gets reinforced.
    • Intermittent – Person\'s correct responses are reinforced periodically.
  • When is continuous schedule best?
    • When teaching a new skill.
  • When is an intermittent schedule best?
    • When person has reached criterion and teacher wants to reduce reinforce for maintaining response only.
    • Example of continuous Reinforcement:
    • Each correct response is reinforced by teacher when the response is made.
c onsequent interventions39
Consequent Interventions

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Schedules of Reinforcement

  • Ratio- Schedule reinforcement according to the number of behaviors
    • Fixed
    • Variable (average)
  • Interval – The first behavior occurring after the passage of a certain amount of time
    • Fixed
  • Variable (average)
c onsequent interventions40
Consequent Interventions

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Schedules of Reinforcement Examples

  • FR-5

5-5-5-5-5-5-5-5-5 = 45 Math Problems

  • VR-5

2-8-1-4-5-6-8-7-4 = Math Problems

  • FI – 10 Minutes

10-10-10-10-10-10 = 60 minutes

  • VI – 10 minutes

2-12-1-16-15-14 = 60 minutes

differential reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement

Reinforcement is delivered contingent on the occurrence of a behavior other than the problem behavior or the behavior occurring at a reduced rate

&

Withholding reinforcement as much as possible for the problem behavior.

(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement42
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of

Alternative Behavior (DRA)

A reinforcer is withheld following a target behavior and only delivered following a specified alternative behavior.

A teacher can use an alternative behavior to occupy the time in which the undesirable behavior occurs.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement43
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)

Reinforcing hitting a switch that elicits a recorded “I want a break” message to replace sliding out of a desk

Reinforcing correct responses to a task with attention instead of slapping for attention

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement44
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)

Advantages

  • Simultaneously weakens the problem behavior while strengthening acceptable behaviors

Disadvantage

  • Problem behavior can still occur

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement45
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)

Reinforcing a behavior that can NOT occur at the same time as the problem behavior

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement46
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of

Incompatible Behavior (DRI)

Reinforce answering questions to reduce the number of swear words a learner may be using. The learner can’t swear and answer questions the same time

Reinforce sitting instead of wandering.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement47
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of

Incompatible Behavior (DRI)

Advantages

  • Student cannot engage in problem behavior and replacement behavior at the same time

Disadvantages

  • May be difficult to identify incompatible behaviors

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement48
Differential Reinforcement

Using DRA/DRI effectively

Selecting Behaviors to be Reinforced that:

-Exist in the learner’s repertoire

-Require equal or less effort than the problem behavior

-Occur at a rate that will provide sufficient opportunities for reinforcement

-Will be likely reinforced in the student’s natural environments

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement49
Differential Reinforcement

Using DRA/DRI effectively

  • Select reinforcers that are powerful and can be delivered consistently.
  • Consider what is doable.
  • Reinforce alternate response immediately and consistently!

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement50
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of

Lower Rates of Behavior/Responding (DRL)

A reinforcer is presented following the occurrence of a designated lower rate of behavior

Used to decrease responses that need not be eliminated entirely

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement51
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of

Lower Rates of Behavior/Responding (DRL)

Reinforce talking out 10 times per hour instead of a previously established rate of 20 times per hour

Ask “What time is it?” 6 times per 30 min instead of a previously established rate of 8 times per 30 min

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement52
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of

Lower Rates of Behavior/Responding (DRL)

Advantage

  • Behavior change can be addressed incrementally

Disadvantages

  • Attention given to problem behavior
  • Not for use with SIB, and other potentially dangerous behaviors.
  • Time consuming

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement53
Differential Reinforcement

Using DRL effectively

  • Use baseline data to select response limits
  • Gradually thin the DRL schedule
  • Provide feedback to the learners concerning their performance

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement54
Differential Reinforcement
  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)

Reinforcement is delivered contingent on the absence of problem behavior during or at specific times

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement55
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)

Reinforcement is delivered contingent on problem behavior not occurring

throughout an interval of time

(Interval DRO)

or

at specific moments in time

(Momentary DRO)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement56
Differential Reinforcement

Interval DRO

Reinforcement is delivered if NO occurrences of the behavior were observed during an entire time interval.

If the behavior occurs during an interval the interval is re-set and delays the delivery of reinforcement.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement57
Differential Reinforcement

Example

A third grade teacher determines a student’s response rate to be 6 times an hour; she sets her DRO interval at 5 min.

If the student exhibits the response during the interval, the timer was re-set for another 5 minutes.

If the student did not exhibit the response then the student earned 2 min of free play .

Prepared by KATC (2010)

differential reinforcement58
Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)

Advantages

  • Highly Effective
  • Easy to understand
  • Can be combined with other procedures

Disadvantages

  • Other non-target behavior may occur and inadvertently be reinforced
  • Must be implemented with high levels of fidelity

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
differential reinforcement59
Differential Reinforcement

Using DRO effectively

  • Set intervals to assure frequent reinforcement.
  • Avoid delivering reinforcement at the same time as other problem behaviors are occurring.
  • Gradually increase DRO intervals

Prepared by KATC (2010)

making decisions based upon data let s practice
Making decisions based upon data-Let’s Practice!

Determine current rate of behavior

Decide on DR schedule to use

Determine actual schedule based upon data on behavior

goldilocks rule of reinforcement
Goldilocks Rule of Reinforcement

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Reinforcement schedule needs to be “Just Right”.

Opportunity to earn reinforcement needs to be available 2 times as often as challenging behavior.

Does not mean will actually earn –reinforcement is contingent.

kicks
Kicks

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Data: 16 hour day

noncompliance
Noncompliance

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Data: one hour per day

number of assignments completed
Number of Assignments Completed

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Data: one hour per day

slide65
Hits

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Data: Four hours in evening at group home

shirt tearing
Shirt Tearing

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Data: 6 hour day at school

inappropriate acts
Inappropriate Acts

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

Data: two hours a day for 5 days (total)

delivering reinforcement
Delivering Reinforcement

Primary/unconditioned reinforcers

Secondary/Conditioned reinforcers

Token economies

Prepared by KATC (2010)

token economies
Token Economies

Three components

  • A list of target behaviors
  • Tokens are delivered for emitting target behaviors.
  • A menu of back up reinforcers

Prepared by KATC (2010)

token economies70
Token Economies
  • Develop an understanding of cause and effect for behavior.
  • Measure occurrence of appropriate behavior.
  • Allow for visual feedback on progress for child.
  • Reminds adults to reinforce appropriate behavior.
  • Provides motivation for child to see his/her progress.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

token economies71
Token Economies

Using token economies effectively

  • Select durable tokens
  • Consider student’s interests in token boards
  • Deliver tokens immediately
  • Use powerful reinforcers

Prepared by KATC (2010)

token economies72
Token Economies

Using token economies effectively

  • Teach the system
  • Initially, deliver tokens on a dense schedule for low demand responses
  • Gradually increase demands

Prepared by KATC (2010)

video example
Video Example
  • NYFAC. Discrete trial teaching (1999). NYC: New York Families for Autistic Children.

Token Economy

delivering reinforcement74
Delivering Reinforcement

Implementing effectively

Rule 1: Cannot tell whether something is a reinforce until try it and observe effect on the behavior.

Rule 2: What is a reinforce for one person may not be for another. Individualized.

Rule 3: To be effective, a reinforce must occur during or immediately after the behavior.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

delivering reinforcement75
Delivering Reinforcement

Implementing effectively

Rule 4: Limited Access

Rule 5: Reinforcement must be contingent if it is to be effective. RE: First this, then that.

Rule 6: When strengthening a new behavior, reinforce frequently.

Rule 7: Size of SR+ is big enough to keep student motivated, but not to big for satiation

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

functional communication training
Functional Communication Training

Franzone, E. (2009). Overview of functional communication training (FCT). Madison, WI:

National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.

A special form of DRA

FCT is a systematic practice to replace inappropriate behavior or subtle communicative acts with more appropriate and effective communicative behaviors.

When using FCT, teachers/practitioners analyze the problem behavior to determine what the learner is trying to communicate.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training77
Functional Communication Training

Why do you think FCT is such a powerful intervention for students with ASD?

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training78
Functional Communication Training

What types of things do students with ASD communicate via problem behavior?

‘Hi, notice me”

“I need help”

“ I don’t want that”

“What is that”

“I want that one”

“Something’s wrong”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training79
Functional Communication Training

Reinforce the student saying help, instead of screaming when the computer freezes.

Reinforce handing a picture card to a peer requesting a toy instead of grabbing it.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training81
Functional Communication Training

Advantages

  • Dramatic decrease in challenging behavior
  • Increases communication
  • Social validity
  • Gains that generalize
  • Gains that last

Disadvantages

  • High rates of recruitment for reinforcement
  • Request may occur at inconvenient times
  • Extinction may produce undesirable effects

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
functional communication training82
Functional Communication Training

Implementing FCT effectively

  • Complete an FBA
  • Identify a replacement communicative response
  • Teach the new response through prompting

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training83
Functional Communication Training

IDENTIFY REPLACEMENT COMMUNICATIVE RESPONSE

Consider form used in current repertoire

Should be more effective and efficient than problem behavior

Should be understood by others

Your data will determine if the form that was selected is working

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training84
Functional Communication Training

Forms

Function

Requests/mand

  • Gestures
  • Signs
  • Words
  • Picture systems
  • Objects
  • Technology

Prepared by KATC (2010)

slide85

Functional Communication Training

REMEMBER

The FUNCTION of the communication stays the same, the FORM changes.

More than one behavior may serve the SAME function.

One behavior may have SEVERAL functions.

Change the FORM of the behavior not the function.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training86
Functional Communication Training
  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Implementing FCT effectively

  • Use a dense schedule of reinforcement.
  • Limit your use of verbal prompts.
  • Combine with other behavior reductive techniques.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

functional communication training87
Functional Communication Training
  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)

Implementing FCT effectively

  • Thinning Reinforcement
  • Consider presenting reinforcement on an interval schedule during instruction.
  • Once the communicative response is established, gradually increase the intervals.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

video example of drc
Video Example of DRC

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

  • YAI/New York League for Early Learning. (2003). Creating a classroom for children with autism and other disorders of relating and communication. New York: YAI/New York League for Early Learning.

Snack

expanded communicative functions

Expanded Communicative Functions

Social convention

Greeting others, responding to one’s name

Attention to Self

Getting the attention of others, showing off

Reject/ Protest

Rejecting non-preferred items, indicating no

Request an object

Requesting access to preferred objects or activities

Request an action

Requesting assistance with a task

Prepared by KATC (2010)

expanded communicative functions91

Expanded Communicative Functions

Request information

Requesting the name of an object, requesting clarification

Comment

Alerting a communication partner to some relevant aspect of environment

Choice making

Choosing between two or more alternatives

Answer

Indicating yes or not to a question

Imitation

Imitating a head nod for yes or no

Prepared by KATC (2010)

punishment procedures
Punishment Procedures

Using Punishment Procedures

Punishment procedure should only be used when other methods have failed .

(Iwata, 1988)

Unfortunately, they are often the first intervention employed in some educational contexts.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

punishment procedures93
Punishment Procedures

Types of Punishment Procedures

  • Reprimands
  • Response Interruption/Redirection (RIR)
  • Response blocking
  • Time out
  • Response cost
  • Overcorrection
  • Contingent exercise

Prepared by KATC (2010)

punishment procedures94
Punishment Procedures

Problems associated with punishment-based procedures

  • Social acceptability
  • Doesn’t teach appropriate responding
  • Collateral effects on responding

Prepared by KATC (2010)

punishment procedures95
Punishment Procedures

Problems associated with punishment-based procedures

  • Modeling of undesirable behavior
  • Aggressive responses to aversive events
  • Overuse of Punishment

Prepared by KATC (2010)

punishment
Punishment

Prior to implementing any punishment procedures, there must be data documenting attempts at behavior change using less intrusive procedures.

The determination to use punishment procedures should be made by an intervention team involving input from parents.

Procedural fidelity and student responses should be

monitored using continuous data collection .

Prepared by KATC (2010)

reprimands
Reprimands

The delivery of a reprimand immediately following a problem behavior

“In spite of the widespread use of verbal reprimands in an effort to suppress problem behavior, surprisingly few studies have examined the effectiveness of reprimands as punishers”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
response blocking
Response blocking

Physically intervening as soon as a person emits a problem behavior to prevent or block the completion of the response

  • Often used to address chronic and automatically reinforced behaviors
  • The response is blocked using the least intrusive prompt

Prepared by KATC (2010)

  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
response interruption redirection
Response Interruption/Redirection

A procedure that combines Response blocking and Differential Reinforcement.

Often used as a treatment for automatically reinforced behaviors.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

response interruption redirection100
Response Interruption/Redirection
  • (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007: NPDCA. 2009)

During the FBA, the target response to be blocked/interrupted is identified as well as an alternative response.

Once the response block is provided, the participant is immediately prompted to engage in a competing response using a least to most prompting hierarchy.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

response interruption redirection101
Response Interruption/Redirection

Verbal or physical blocking can be used.

Example: Student engages in “video talk”.

Teacher says” What color is your shirt?”

Student says “Blue.”

Teacher delivers praise.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

response interruption redirection102
Response Interruption/Redirection

Verbal or physical blocking can be used

Example: Student engages in “hand-mouthing.”

Teacher blocks.

Teacher prompts student to move to the cabinet and request for an edible.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

response cost
Response Cost

A loss of a specific amount of reinforcement occurs contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior.

E.g. Fines

Combined with Positive Reinforcement

Prepared by KATC (2010)

response cost104
Response Cost

Benefits of using Response Cost combined with Positive Reinforcement

  • Students do not have to lose all of their tokens.
  • Students have opportunity to earn new tokens.

(Ensuring a reinforcement reserve)

Prepared by KATC (2010)

time out
Time Out

Time out from positive reinforcement

The withdrawal of the opportunity to access reinforcement or the removal of a reinforcer for a specified time, contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

time out106
Time Out

Though the use of time out with children seems prevalent in many contexts, the reality is that it is a punishment procedure and therefore, subject to the same cautions.

In addition, if incorrectly applied (for escape maintained behaviors) it may strengthen problem behavior .

Prepared by KATC (2010)

time out107
Time Out

May be less appropriate for students with ASD

Consider that many students with ASD may find academic demands challenging, sensory input overwhelming, and a lack of understanding social cues frustrating.

These students may actually find a removal from educational contexts to be reinforcing.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

time out108
Time Out

In addition, some students with ASD may find time out an opportunity to engage in automatically reinforced behavior/stereotypy.

Again, making time out reinforcing and possibly strengthening problem behavior.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

time out109
Time Out

For example:

Mica walks into the gym with his class. He is overwhelmed by the loud noises and melts down.

The teacher removes the student to the hallway for a brief 3 minute time out.

The students learns quickly that the fastest way to get out of gym is to meltdown

“Smart kid, huh”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Time Out

So again

Time out from reinforcement should be considered only after other interventions have failed (and the data show it).

A thorough FBA should be conducted and positive reinforcement (attention, tangible) should be identified as well as the function.

Parents should be involved in the decision to use time out .

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Time Out

Non-Exclusionary

Individual is not physically removed from the time-in setting

Planned ignoring

Withdrawal of a specific reinforcer

Contingent observation

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Time Out

Exclusionary

Student is removed entirely from the environment for a specified period.

Very difficult to implement accurately & effectively in school settings

Prepared by KATC (2010)

time out considerations
Time Out Considerations
  • The “time-in” environment must be reinforcing.
  • All relevant parties must be informed of the behaviors leading to time out.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Time Out Considerations
  • Keep time out periods brief (2 to 10 min).
  • Clearly define exit criteria

(exit should not be based solely on the passage of time but on an improved behavioral condition).

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Time Out Considerations
  • Obtain permission before using it.
  • Apply it consistently.
  • Evaluate effectiveness.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Time Out

Again, only when less intrusive procedures have failed should time out be used.

This should involve documentation of the previously conducted interventions.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

overcorrection
Overcorrection

Behavior reduction tactic in which contingent on the occurrence of problem behavior the student is required to engage in effortful behavior related to the problem.

Restitutional

repair the damage caused by the problem behavior

and then some

Positive practice

repeated practice of correct response or response incompatible with problem behavior

Prepared by KATC (2010)

contingent exercise
Contingent Exercise

Person is required to perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior.

“Drop and give me 20.”

Prepared by KATC (2010)

putting it together
Putting it together!

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

steps in setting up a behavior support plan
Steps in Setting Up a Behavior Support Plan
  • 1. Identify the challenging behavior that needs to be changed. Define the behavior in specific observable, measurable terms.
  • 2. Measure the challenging behavior. Collect data as to when, with whom, how often, antecedent events/settings, precursor behaviors, etc.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Steps in Setting Up a Behavior Support Plan
  • 3. Complete a functional assessment. Develop a “hypothesis” (best guess) about the function of the behavior based upon the data and information collected.
  • 4. Select behavior change strategies. The strategies are to “match” the function of the challenging behavior using a multi-element approach. Develop a Positive Behavior Support Plan and establish realistic IEP goals and objectives.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Steps in Setting Up a Behavior Support Plan

5. Implement and monitor effectiveness. Continue to measure the challenging behavior in the manner as before/during the functional assessment.

6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the PBS Plan based upon progress monitoring data.

7. Revise PBS Plan, as necessary.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

tips for pbs plans
Tips for PBS Plans
  • Keep in mind the function of the challenging behavior. The function of the challenging behavior may be different for different students or different behaviors of the same student.
  • Write the plan in an outline format, keeping the plan to 2-3 pages. Use headings so that strategies may be found and read quickly for ease in implementation.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Tips for PBS Plans
  • Be specific in the directions so that all persons assisting with the student will understand and implement the plan in a consistent manner.
  • Identify precursor behaviors and intervene early in the behavioral chain of challenging behavior. Precursor behaviors are the mild cues that the student may display that indicates that the more severe challenging behavior is likely to follow.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Tips for PBS Plans
  • Reward systems should match the rate of challenging behavior. Don’t expect a lot of behavior change for little reward. Use the Goldilocks Rule that suggests that the amount of reinforcement opportunities should be twice as much as the current rate of the challenging behavior.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Tips for PBS Plans
  • The rewards identified by the ARC must be ones that are important to the student for success. Those rewards only chosen for availability may not be powerful enough to motivate the student to change behavior.
  • Make sure the student knows all rules and consequences. Be creative in reviewing the rules with students.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Tips for PBS Plans
  • Apply reinforcement and punishment consistently.
  • Structure the environment. Plan ahead…Idle time invites problems.
  • If unsure of strategies to use with a given student, assign ARC member to review literature for options or seek consultation from an outside source.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Tips for PBS Plans
  • The ARC may consider role playing strategies amongst those who will implement the plan to ensure consistency.
  • Don’t specify strategies that the ARC members cannot or will not implement. PBS Plan is part of the IEP; therefore, a legal contract of services.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

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Tips for PBS Plans
  • Remember PBS Plans are not the same as a disciplinary plan. PBS Plans encourage and teach replacement behaviors. Disciplinary procedures may be only a small part of the plan.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

effective interventions are
Effective Interventions are…
  • Multi-element approach
  • Collaboratively designed
  • Consistent
  • Do-Able
  • Based on setting the student up for success
  • Clear & Concise: “If - then statements
  • Based upon a 3:1 ratio of positive to negative comments.

Prepared by KY Coop Network

May 2010

parting shots
Parting shots

The success of any behavior change program is hinged on the accurate identification of reinforcers through FBA

And careful monitoring via continuous data collection and the graphing of that data.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

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Parting shots

How do I select a behavior intervention?

  • Consider data from the FBA.
  • Consider team and parent input.
  • Consider interventions that teach new skills.
  • Consider the least intrusive intervention

for the student and teacher.

  • Consider the difficulty in conducting the intervention.

Prepared by KATC (2010)

a review
A Review

Behavior change involves the manipulation of

antecedents, consequences, or both.

A B C

Prepared by KATC (2010)

slide135
"People don\'t shape the world,

the world shapes them"

(BF Skinner)

reference list suggested readings
Reference List & Suggested Readings
  • Alberto, P.A. & Troutman, A.C. (1995). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers (Fourth Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall Publishers
  • Bailey, J. & Burch, M. (2006). How to think like a behavior analyst. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Barbera, M.L. (2007). The verbal behavior approach: How to teach children with autism and related disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
      • Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (Second Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.
      • Franzone, E. (2009). Overview of functional communication training (FCT). Madison, WI: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.
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Reference List & Suggested Readings
  • Lee, D.L. & Axelrod, S. (2005). Behavior Modification: Basic Principles (Third Edition). Austin, TX : ProEd Publishers.
  • Luce, S.C. & Smith, A.F. (2007). How to Support Children with Problem behaviors. Austin, TX : ProEd Publishers.
  • NYFAC. Discrete trial teaching (1999). NYC: New York Families for Autistic Children.
  • Vargas, J.S. (2009). Behavior Analysis for effective teaching. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • YAI/New York League for Early Learning. (2003). Creating a classroom for children with autism and other disorders of relating and communication. New York: YAI/New York League for Early Learning.
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