Kelp Forests
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Kelp Forests Dominated by brown algae Found in shallow open coastal settings where water temperature usually < 20 o C Bottom depth typically <20 m Light readily available Highly productive, diverse ecosystems Productivity related to fast kelp growth rates. Fig. 16-7. Pacific Fig. 16-8.

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Kelp Forests Dominated by brown algae

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Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Kelp Forests

    • Dominated by brown algae

    • Found in shallow open coastal settings where water temperature usually <20 oC

    • Bottom depth typically <20 m

      • Light readily available

    • Highly productive, diverse ecosystems

      • Productivity related to fast kelp growth rates


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

Fig. 16-7


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

Pacific Fig. 16-8

Atlantic Fig. 16-9


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Kelp Forests


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Kelp Forests

    • Factors Affecting Kelp Forests

      • Intensity and frequency of winter storms

      • Presence/Absence of urchin predators (sea otters/lobsters)

      • Abundance and behavior of herbivores

      • Winter storms can rip kelps from their holdfasts

      • After severe storms, portions of sea floor may be stripped of kelp

        • Urchins deprived of preferred foods (mature kelp or drift algae) may increase mobility and eat newly recruited kelps

        • Grazing may prevent kelps from re-growing

          • Leads to establishment of more resistant coralline algae

          • Leads to urchin barrens

vanaqua.org


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

Fig. 16-14

hopkins.stanford.edu


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Kelp Forests

    • Kelp Forest Ecology

      • Sea otters/Lobsters important top-down regulators of community structure

        • Prey on important grazers like urchins (Pac/Atl) and abalones (Pac)

      • Urchins, abalones, other herbivores graze on attached seaweeds, drift kelp

      • Urchin populations can have a major impact on community composition

Fig. 16-11


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

Fig. 16-15


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Plants

    • Bryophytes

      • Non-vascular plants

      • Dominant gametophyte

      • Marchantiophyta (liverworts)

      • Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)

      • Bryophyta (mosses)


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

bio1151.nicerweb.com


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Plants

    • Pteridophytes

      • Vascular plants

      • Dominant sporophyte

      • Lycopodiophyta (club mosses)

      • Pteridophyta (ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails)

sierrapotomac.org

stevie8126.blogspot.com

malag.aes.oregonstate.edu


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Plants

    • Seed Plants

      • Vascular plants

      • Dominant sporophyte

      • Cycadophyta (sago palms)

      • Ginkgophyta (ginkgo)

      • Pinophyta (conifers)

      • Gnetophyta (gnetales)

      • Anthophyta/Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)**


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

cycads

southafrica.net

ginkgo

ucmp.berkeley.edu

Welwitschia

biolib.cz

conifers

frogsonice.com


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)

    • True roots, stems, leaves

      • Roots

        • Mechanical anchors

        • Absorb water, minerals

        • Often with root hairs (increase surface area for absorption)

        • May store carbohydrates

      • Stems

        • Elevate and separate leaves

        • Elevate reproductive structures

        • Nodes, internodes

      • Leaves

        • Main photosynthetic organ

        • Blade, petiole, veins

    • Specialized vascular tissues that transport water, minerals, nutrients

      • Xylem – Water

      • Phloem – Minerals, nutrients


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

thomson.fosterscience.com


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

parenchyma

collenchyma

sclerenchyma


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

micro.magnet.fsu.edu


Kelp forests dominated by brown algae

  • Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)

    • Monocots vs. dicots

holganix.com


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