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Kelp Forests Dominated by brown algae

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Kelp Forests Dominated by brown algae Found in shallow open coastal settings where water temperature usually < 20 o C Bottom depth typically <20 m Light readily available Highly productive, diverse ecosystems Productivity related to fast kelp growth rates. Fig. 16-7. Pacific Fig. 16-8.

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slide1
Kelp Forests
    • Dominated by brown algae
    • Found in shallow open coastal settings where water temperature usually <20 oC
    • Bottom depth typically <20 m
      • Light readily available
    • Highly productive, diverse ecosystems
      • Productivity related to fast kelp growth rates
slide3

Pacific Fig. 16-8

Atlantic Fig. 16-9

slide5
Kelp Forests
    • Factors Affecting Kelp Forests
      • Intensity and frequency of winter storms
      • Presence/Absence of urchin predators (sea otters/lobsters)
      • Abundance and behavior of herbivores
      • Winter storms can rip kelps from their holdfasts
      • After severe storms, portions of sea floor may be stripped of kelp
        • Urchins deprived of preferred foods (mature kelp or drift algae) may increase mobility and eat newly recruited kelps
        • Grazing may prevent kelps from re-growing
          • Leads to establishment of more resistant coralline algae
          • Leads to urchin barrens

vanaqua.org

slide6

Fig. 16-14

hopkins.stanford.edu

slide7
Kelp Forests
    • Kelp Forest Ecology
      • Sea otters/Lobsters important top-down regulators of community structure
        • Prey on important grazers like urchins (Pac/Atl) and abalones (Pac)
      • Urchins, abalones, other herbivores graze on attached seaweeds, drift kelp
      • Urchin populations can have a major impact on community composition

Fig. 16-11

slide9
Plants
    • Bryophytes
      • Non-vascular plants
      • Dominant gametophyte
      • Marchantiophyta (liverworts)
      • Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
      • Bryophyta (mosses)
slide11
Plants
    • Pteridophytes
      • Vascular plants
      • Dominant sporophyte
      • Lycopodiophyta (club mosses)
      • Pteridophyta (ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails)

sierrapotomac.org

stevie8126.blogspot.com

malag.aes.oregonstate.edu

slide12
Plants
    • Seed Plants
      • Vascular plants
      • Dominant sporophyte
      • Cycadophyta (sago palms)
      • Ginkgophyta (ginkgo)
      • Pinophyta (conifers)
      • Gnetophyta (gnetales)
      • Anthophyta/Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)**
slide13

cycads

southafrica.net

ginkgo

ucmp.berkeley.edu

Welwitschia

biolib.cz

conifers

frogsonice.com

slide14
Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)
    • True roots, stems, leaves
      • Roots
        • Mechanical anchors
        • Absorb water, minerals
        • Often with root hairs (increase surface area for absorption)
        • May store carbohydrates
      • Stems
        • Elevate and separate leaves
        • Elevate reproductive structures
        • Nodes, internodes
      • Leaves
        • Main photosynthetic organ
        • Blade, petiole, veins
    • Specialized vascular tissues that transport water, minerals, nutrients
      • Xylem – Water
      • Phloem – Minerals, nutrients
slide16

parenchyma

collenchyma

sclerenchyma

slide18
Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)
    • Monocots vs. dicots

holganix.com

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