Ultimatum bargaining from synapse to society colin f camerer caltech
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Ultimatum bargaining: From synapse to society Colin F. Camerer, Caltech. Ultimatum game: Proposer offers division of $10; responder accepts or rejects Theories: Rejections express social preferences (care about $, envy, guilt)

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Ultimatum bargaining from synapse to society colin f camerer caltech
Ultimatum bargaining: From synapse to societyColin F. Camerer, Caltech

  • Ultimatum game:

    • Proposer offers division of $10; responder accepts or rejects

  • Theories:

    • Rejections express social preferences (care about $, envy, guilt)

    • “Unnatural habitat” (adapted to repeated games, one-shot is Stroop)

  • Variants:

    • Dictator games (same responsibility?)

    • Demographics (generally weak)

    • Stakes– rejected $ goes up, % goes down

    • Repetition etc.– weak

    • Low information about “pie” size lower offers (and “pleading poverty ”)

    • Proposer competition offers give most to responder

    • Two-stage games responders (weakly) accept lower offers because proposers have an “excuse” (intentions matter)



Us data roth et al 1991
US data (Roth et al 1991) counterproposals” in longer games


Ultimatum vs dictator games forsythe et al 1994 nb dictator games are weak situations more variance
Ultimatum vs dictator “games” (Forsythe et al 1994) counterproposals” in longer gamesNB: Dictator games are “weak situations”, more variance


Low medium high stakes slonim roth 1998
Low, medium, high stakes (Slonim-Roth 1998) counterproposals” in longer games


Do players learn to accept low offers at high stakes
Do players learn to accept low offers at high stakes? counterproposals” in longer games


Special subject pools conditions
Special subject pools & conditions counterproposals” in longer games

  • Neural evidence (ACC, DLPFC, insula for low offers; difference predicts rejection r=.4)

  • Autistics offer less (don’t expect rejection)

    • Adults learn to take “objective stance”

  • Cutting-off-nose effect (Monkeys reject unequal pay, Brosnan and De Waal, Science 9/18/03; F capuchins will refuse exchange for low payoff if others get high payoff)

  • Small-scale societies

    • Variation in mean offer (some offer very little)

    • Fair offers correlated with “market integration” and “cooperativeness”


Market games 9 proposer competition
“Market” games (9-proposer competition) counterproposals” in longer games




Ask the brain within l and pooled r correlations of insula and dlpfc activity rejection
“ask the brain”: within (L) and pooled (R) correlations of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection


Feeling this is your brain on unfairness
Feeling: This is your brain on unfairness of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection


Pain circuitry
Pain circuitry of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection


Ultimatum offer experimental sites
Ultimatum offer experimental sites of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection


The Machiguenga of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection

independent families

cash cropping

slash & burn

gathered foods

fishing

hunting


African pastoralists (Kenya) of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection


Whale Hunters of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection

of

Lamalera, Indonesia

High levels of

cooperation among hunters of whales, sharks, dolphins and rays. Protein for carbs trade with inlanders

Researcher: Mike Alvard


Ultimatum offers across societies mean shaded mode is largest circle
Ultimatum offers across societies of insula and DLPFC activity & rejection(mean shaded, mode is largest circle…)


Fair offers correlate with market integration top cooperativeness in everyday life bottom

Fair offers correlate with market integration (top), of insula and DLPFC activity & rejectioncooperativeness in everyday life (bottom)



Autistics v normals adults top children bottom
Autistics v normals test (adults top, children bottom)



Unnatural habit hypothesis
Unnatural habit hypothesis… (Zamir, 2000)

  • "Although subjects fully understand the rules of the game and its payoff structure, their behavior is influenced by an unconscious perception that the situation they are facing is part of a much more extended game of similar real-life interactions…We believe that it is practically impossible to create laboratory conditions that would cancel out this effect and induce subjects to act as if they were facing an anonymous one-shot [ultimatum game]." (Winter & Zamir, 1997)


Testing theories new ideas
Testing theories: New ideas (Zamir, 2000)

  • How to separate preference vs unnatural habitat views?

    • Role of emotions

    • Look for cross-game regularity in measured preferences

    • Learning (…or is it temporary satiation?)

    • fMRI and ACC Stroop interpretations


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