Sheltering-in-Place April 20 , 2005. Angelo Grima Grubb & Ellis Management Services, Inc. Building Owners and Managers Association New York. Large Facility Emergency Planning. What is Emergency Planning?. Establishing Policy and Organizational Structure – Then:
Sheltering-in-Place April 20, 2005
Angelo Grima Grubb & Ellis Management Services, Inc.
Building Owners and Managers Association New York
Large Facility Emergency Planning
Establishing Policy and Organizational Structure – Then:
Assessment: Identifying Hazards, Risks, & Assets Available
Preparedness: Developing a Plan for Readiness
Response: Developing a Plan for Action
Recovery: Developing a Plan for Recovery
Testing the Plan: Training, Drills, and Exercises
Traditionally, Emergency Planning has meant preparing for and responding to:
Main Focus Today and responding to:
With respect to Large Facilities and High Rise Office Buildings
What situations that might bring about a “Shelter-in-Place” request from Government
However, when we are prepared for “Shelter-in-Place” request from Government
Earthquake, Fire, Flood
We are also somewhat prepared for other emergency situations
Fire Safety Director “Shelter-in-Place” request from Government
Emergency Operations Plan
1970s-style retrofit: 14 stories with outside air intakes at ground and roof levels. 15 HVAC systems, most vertically zoned
E intake “Shelter-in-Place” request from Government
Common Return Shaft
NE intake (street level)
SBStudy Building Diagram
Defense Threat Reduction Data Gathering Exercise – Experiment using a tracer gas outside an office building with respect to infiltration and dispersal within the building - the results of a NOISH experiment on the infiltration of a “Tracer Gas” on a commercial office building in Oklahoma City (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
Airborne Contaminant Concentration over Time Experiment using a tracer gas outside an office building with respect to infiltration and dispersal within the building - the results of a NOISH experiment on the infiltration of a “Tracer Gas” on a commercial office building in Oklahoma City (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
About 90 minutes
Red = Outside
Blue = Inside
Threat Assessment Experiment using a tracer gas outside an office building with respect to infiltration and dispersal within the building - the results of a NOISH experiment on the infiltration of a “Tracer Gas” on a commercial office building in Oklahoma City (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
With respect to terror threat to office buildings, the level of security action to be considered is dependant on two considerations:
1. Risk assessment based upon the current perceived terror-threat in the country and community based upon terror activity, warnings, or threats.
2. Risk assessment based upon the perceived prominence of the building as a target.
As one might expect, security operations tighten as terror activity increases and as a function of:
The higher the threat-profile the higher the corresponding level of security measures.
It is clear that security and convenience are proportionally opposite of each other.
As one increases, the other decreases.
“Lock Down” being the highest alert status of building operations.
Elevated increase in security operations - Operating with increased stationary security and patrols and inspecting deliveries and vehicles.
Significant Threat - Operating on lock-down increased stationary security and patrols and inspecting deliveries and vehicles.
Controlled access via a limited number of entrances that are staffed round the clock with security. Requiring all visitors and deliveries to be met, signed in, and escorted by building tenants from the lobby or loading dock and back out again. Restricting all vehicles that enter the garage to permitted drivers. Restricting access to the loading dock to persons and deliveries that have been inspected.
6. Towing of abandoned vehicles increased stationary security and patrols and inspecting deliveries and vehicles.
7. Security stationed on the service elevator
8. Access only by key card
9. All person accessing the building must pass through a metal detector and be checked in by security, all packages are examined via x-ray technology. (This is a high security Federal Building).
10. Total lockdown, no access, elevator moved to a floor above the lobby level.
Environmental systems (HVAC)
Vulnerability Assessment practice evacuation drills
Assessing Building Vulnerabilities to:
Chemical or Biological Agent Attack
(CDC Interactive Questionnaire)
(Assessment with Local First Responders
Assessing potentially vulnerable locations within a building practice evacuation drills
Reducing Accessibility of key HVAC system components practice evacuation drills
HVAC Control practice evacuation drills
Are there local sources of Hazardous Material? practice evacuation drills
Building Evacuation Routes practice evacuation drills
Protecting Building Environments From Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
First we must understand what Bio-Chem and radiological threats mean – what is reliable information and what is unhelpful myth, hype, or hoax?
Protecting From What?
NUCLEAR Biological, or Radiological Attacks
PROBABILITY/LIKELIHOODPotential and Probability
Avon calling ?
Suitcase nuclear devices
are very unlikely
“Dirty bombs” are
the most likely
Chlorine is commonly
used and transported
throughout the country.
It was the first battle-
field chemical agent
Warning Next Slide Graphic
One of the blister
agents, or vesicants:
Two types of attack scenarios:
SLUDGE - M(plus convulsions)
Poison or biological attack: Biological, or Radiological Attacks
Poison gas release inside a building (Sarin or similar).
Poison gas release outside a building.
Biological germ release inside a building (Anthrax or similar).
Biological germ release outside a building.
Poison gas or biological germ release directly into a buildings air intake system.
In the event of a biological incident, Public Health:
F E M A Biological, or Radiological Attacks
D O E
P H S
F B I
E P AFederal Response Plan
You’re at the center
Notify First RespondersWhat Is R-A-I-N ?
Environmental Systems (HVAC)
HVAC system vulnerabilities First Responders
New HVAC system design considerations
HVAC system retrofit consideration
HVAC system operations, expectations and limitations
NIOSH Guidance for Protecting Building Environments From Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
Things Not To Do
Extension Design Recommendations
Ventilation and Filtration
Air Contaminant Sizes
Air Filtration Principles
Types of Particulate Filters
Various Filter Types
Filter Efficiency Ratings
Infiltration & Bypass
Issues To Consider
Economic Issues To Consider
Ventilation and Filtration
Maintenance, Administration and Training
Things Not To Do Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
Do not permanently seal outdoor air intakes.
Do not modify HVAC systems (includes filter upgrades) without understanding the effects on building systems or occupants.
Do not interfere with fire protection and life safety systems.
Prevent Access to Outdoor Air Intakes.
Relocate OA intake to a high sidewall or secure roof
Restrict Access to Mechanical Areas and Roofs
Mechanical areas located throughout building
Provide access to centralized mechanical systems (HVAC, elevator, water, etc.)
Unauthorized roof access can lead to building ingress and/or access to roof-mounted mechanical equipment
Mechanical systems are susceptible to tampering & contamination
From Use As A Distribution System For Biological And Chemical Weapons Agents
Conventional HVAC filtration is not a viable line of protection. Although HEPA filters cannot protect against all airborne hazards, they can provide additional protection against many biological agents. Understanding their limitations will allow one to apply them in the most effective manner.
Some issues and considerations are:
HP/sqft = (1.0 x 2.0) / ( 6350 x 0.65 x 0.90)
HP/sqft = 0.000538 (For 10,000 sqft = 5.38 HP)
= 3000 hrs
$/sqft-yr =(0.7x (.7/1)² x2 )/(6350x .65 x.90)x 0.746kw/hp x 3000 hrs/yr x $0.12 /kwh
$/sqft-yr = 0.5
Carbon Filters treated with various coatings do provide a degree of protection against chemical agents. Some of the considerations associated with using carbon filters are:
Rapid Detection Systems :
Ventilation System Operation :
Possible Configurations Ventilation System Operation
Emergency Ventilation Shutdown:
Pres. Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
Communications Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
ALERT 03-026 - May 30, 2003 Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
Homeland Security Advisory System Lowered to National Level (YELLOW)
Elevated Condition (YELLOW). An Elevated Condition is declared when there is a significant risk of terrorist attacks. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Alerts recommend the immediate implementation of protective actions, including best practices when available.
As of 1500 on May 30, 2003, following a review of intelligence and an assessment of threats by the intelligence community, DHS, in consultation with the Homeland Security Council, has made the decision to lower the threat level to an Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) to Elevated, or "YELLOW" level risk of terrorist attack.
What do tenants expect from building managers Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
Both tenants and managers appreciate communication and information, where and how to get good information before and during a crisis.
Managers want to be able to demonstrate to corporate office and investors what is being done at their buildings to foresee and prevent a terror act to persons or the property.
Managers and firms want to know what other firms are doing
Managers want to recruit tenants into the security consciousness of the building and train them on what to look for and how to report it
Managers want to be able to identify and utilize a credible person/expert able to speak to tenants
Managers want to know what real estate managers in other cities and regions are doing
Managers want to promote tenant self-sufficiency
Managers want to know what authorities will and will not tell them about threats
Managers are concerned about they should and should not say when making building public address announcements – especially about evacuation
Tenants want to know how they will know when its safe to return to the building after an evacuation
Managers want floor wardens better trained to act independently if communications are down
Managers want to see a list of all possible terror-threat actions that could be taken against their occupants and facilities
Managers want officials that can come in and teach their staff and tenants on security procedures
Managers want a reliable back up communication system during an emergency
Managers appreciate the communications link BOMA has been able to provide during the WTO, Nisqually earthquake, and September 11th tragedies.
Shelter-In-Place independently if communications are down
Sheltering in Place Considerations due to independently if communications are down
What situations that might bring about a “Shelter-in-Place” request from Government
When might the Director of Health order a quarantine and what would that mean for downtown office buildings – basically what can building management teams expect and how should they prepare for a shelter – in place situation if ever asked or ordered to do so – etc – anything on this topic – including how will KC health know there is a biological or chemical agent – etc.
Shut off HVAC fans.
Close fresh air intake dampers.
Close exhaust dampers: with the HVAC off, they can act as intakes.
Turn off exhaust fans in bathrooms, utility rooms, kitchens, etc.; these are commonly controlled separately from the HVAC system.
Close windows and doors.
Seal cracks and points of air infiltration to the extent possible
Inform internal leaders preparedness
Edit prepared statement and release it via public announcement or posting
Control ingress/egress – establish one controlled entrance and exit
Set up the Shelter-in-Place signage that has been pre-made and locations pre-mapped
People should stay indoors, unless authorities give an evacuation order.
People should retreat to a safe zone in the interior of the building.
Establish a public information officer near the highest tenant and visitor traffic location
Set up emergency situation information monitoring - radio, TV, and government contact and neighboring buildings and businesses
If potential contaminate situation exists - set up a decontaminate station for persons entering the building (a wash down station at or near the controlled entrance).
Move potentially contaminated persons to isolated area
If potential contaminate situation exists - pull out and distribute respirator masks
If potential contaminate situation exists - 0pen and staff a trauma center to include having staff training in trauma first aid
If potential Internal contaminate situation exists exhaust 100% air to the outside
Consider vending machines and office bottled water as a source of food and water
Monitor radioactive exposure with Geiger Counter
Future Considerations preparedness
Guidelines Availability preparedness
10 Things to Do Now preparedness