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The Skeletal System. Your Bones. Functions of the Skeletal System. Protection & Support Your heart and lungs are protected by ribs, your spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, and your brain is protected by the skull. Storage

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Functions of the skeletal system
Functions of the Skeletal System

  • Protection & Support

    • Your heart and lungs are protected by ribs, your spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, and your brain is protected by the skull.

  • Storage

    • Bones store minerals that help your nerves and muscles function properly. Long bones store fat that can be used for energy.

  • Movement

    • Skeletal muscles pull on bones to produce movement. Without bones, you would not be able to sit, stand, walk, or run.

  • Blood Cell Formation

    • Some of your bones are filled with a special material that makes blood cells. This material is called marrow.


Skeleton is the body s framework
Skeleton is the Body’s Framework

  • Axial Skeleton

    • Skull, spinal column, ribs, pelvis

    • Protect vital organs

  • Appendicular Skeleton

    • Legs and arms

    • Provide movement


Classification of bones long bones
Classification of Bones: Long Bones

  • Provides long movements

  • Long bones have large openings or cavities.

  • The cavities in the center of long bones and the spaces in spongy bone are filled with fatty tissue called marrow.

    Examples:

    • Arms

    • Legs


Classification of bones short bones
Classification of Bones: Short Bones

  • Short bones provide short movements

    Examples:

    • Wrists

    • Ankles


Classification of bones irregular bones
Classification of Bones: Irregular Bones

  • Examples of irregular bones:

    • Vertebrate

    • Skull


Classification of bones flat bones
Classification of Bones: Flat Bones

  • Flat bones provide protection

    Examples:

    • Skull

    • Chest

    • Ribs

    • Shoulders


Two types of bone compact bone
Two Types of Bone: Compact Bone

  • Dense tissue located on outside of bone

  • Responsible for support and protection

  • Very hard and strong layers of the bone

  • Contains bone cells, blood vessels, and a protein base or scaffolding with deposits of calcium and phosphorus.

    • The flexible protein base keeps bone from being too rigid and brittle or easily broken


Two types of bone spongy bone
Two Types of Bone: Spongy Bone

  • Located toward the end of long bones

    • Example: Humerus

  • Less compact and has small openings that make these bones lightweight

  • Strong

  • Spaces in the spongy bone are filled with a fatty tissue called marrow which makes red blood cells

  • Contains blood vessels


Parts of bones bone marrow
Parts of Bones: Bone Marrow

  • Like a fatty tissue

  • Contains spongy bones

  • Produces red blood cells (more than 2 million per second)

  • Produces white blood cells


Types of bone marrow
Types of Bone Marrow

  • Red Bone Marrow

    • Produces red blood cells

    • Found in skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and long bones

  • Yellow Bone Marrow

    • Stores fats


Parts of bones blood vessels
Parts of Bones: Blood Vessels

  • Has blood vessels that bring 02 and food to bone cells.


Parts of bones cartilage
Parts of Bones: Cartilage

  • Thick, smooth layer at the ends of bones

  • Do not contain blood vessels or minerals

  • Flexible at joints, absorbs shock.

  • Makes movement easier by reducing friction

  • Result in arthritis when it is worn out

  • Cartilage-tough flexible connective tissue found on the outer ear or tip of the nose

    • Cushions the bones and prevents them from rubbing together

    • Pads between bone structures


Parts of bones cartilage cont
Parts of Bones: Cartilage (cont.)

Disks

  • Pads of cartilage that are found between the vertebrae

  • Cartilage acts as a cushion and prevents injury to the spinal cord


Joints
Joints

  • A joint is a place where two or more bones come together or meet

  • Joints are places between bones that enable the framework of a skeleton to be flexible and to also be a storehouse for minerals.

  • Joints are held together by ligaments.


Three types of joints
Three Types of Joints

  • Fixed joint (fused)

    • does not allow movement

    • Ex: Skull

  • Partially moveable joint

    • allows small movements

    • Ex: Spinal column/vertebrae

  • Moveable Joints

    • allows full movement

    • Ex: Neck, arms, legs


Types of joints moveable ball socket
Types of Joints: Moveable—Ball & Socket

  • Allows movement in all directions

  • Rotational or circular

    • Ex: Shoulder, hips


Types of joints moveable hinge
Types of Joints: Moveable—Hinge

  • Allows movement in one direction

  • Moves back-and-forth

    • Ex: Knee, elbow, fingers, toes


Types of joints moveable pivot
Types of Joints: Moveable—Pivot

  • Allows rotating movements

  • Bones rotate around each other

    • Ex: Neck, 1st/2nd vertebrae, elbow


Types of joints moveable gliding
Types of Joints: Moveable—Gliding

  • Allows sliding movements

  • Bones slide over each other

    • Ex: Small bones of wrist and ankle, vertebrae


Bone development
Bone Development

  • Before you were born, your skeleton was first made in the form of cartilage.

  • Over the years, the cartilage was broken down and replaced by bone-forming cells called osteoblasts.


Bone development cont
Bone Development (cont.)

Osteoblasts

  • The cells deposit calcium and phosphorus that make bone tissue hard.

  • Bone cells that build up bone.

  • At birth, your skeleton was made up of more than 300 bones; but as you developed, some bones fused or grew together

  • Bone tissue is always being formed and reformed


Bone development cont1
Bone Development (cont.)

Osteoclast

  • A second type of bone cell that breaks down tissue in other areas

  • It is a normal process in a healthy person

  • When osteoclasts break down bone, calcium and phosphorus are released.

  • This process keeps the calcium and phosphorus in your bloodstream at about the same level.


Injuries diseases osteoporosis
Injuries & Diseases: Osteoporosis

  • A disease that breaks down bone, causing it to become brittle and weak

  • Bones become less dense

  • Causes of the disease

    • Diet low in calcium

    • Consuming to much caffeine

    • Getting too little exercise


Injuries diseases arthritis
Injuries & Diseases: Arthritis

  • Arthritis is a disease that causes the joints to swell or stiffen.


Injuries diseases fractures
Injuries & Diseases: Fractures

  • A break occurs in the bone

  • Can be small or large

  • Ligaments can be stretched or torn


Dem Bones Song

  • Dem Bones, Dem Bones

  • Dem Bones, Dem Bones

  • Dem Dry Bones

  • Dem Bones, Dem Bones

  • Dem Dry Bones

  • Now Hear the Word of Ms. Laudemann

  • The Phalanges connected to the tarsals

  • Tarsals connected to the fibula

  • The fibula beside the tibia

  • Now hear the word of Miss Laudemann

  • Fibula and tibia connected to the patella

  • Patella connected to the femur

  • The femur connected to the pelvis

  • Pelvis connected to the vertebrae

  • Now hear the word of Ms. Laudemann

  • Vertebrae connected to the ribs

  • Ribs connected to the sternum

  • Sternum connected to the clavicle

  • Now hear the word of Ms. Laudemann

Clavicle connected to the scapula

Scapula connected to the humerus

Humerus connected to the ulna

Ulna beside the radius

Radius connected to the carpals

Carpals connected to the phalanges

Now hear the word of Ms. Laudemann

Dem Bones, Dem Bones

Dem Dry Bones

Now we’re not finished yet

Vertebrae connected to mandible

Mandible connected to maxilla

Maxilla connected to the cranium

Now hear the word of Mrs. Hoehn

Dem Bones, Dem Bones

Dem Dry Bones

They Make the Skeleton!!!!!!!!!!


Use your Science Saurus P. 85 to help you fill out your skeleton.


cranium / skull

maxilla

mandible

clavicle

scapula

ribs

sternum

humerus

vertebrae

radius

pelvis

ulna

metacarpals

carpals

femur

phalanges

patella

sacrum

tibia

fibula

coccyx

metatarsals

tarsals

phalanges


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