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Group Language Instruction Literature Review. Svetlana Vigdorchik Caldwell College Summer 2008. Organization of Presentation. Search Criteria Overview of Literature Number of studies Participants Setting Design DVs and IVs Measurements and results Pertinent Study EBP?

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group language instruction literature review
Group Language InstructionLiterature Review

Svetlana Vigdorchik

Caldwell College

Summer 2008

organization of presentation
Organization of Presentation
  • Search Criteria
  • Overview of Literature
    • Number of studies
    • Participants
    • Setting
    • Design
    • DVs and IVs
    • Measurements and results
    • Pertinent Study
    • EBP?
    • Future research
search criteria
Search Criteria
  • Google
    • Small group instruction autism (61,800)
    • Direct instruction autism (73,700)
    • Choral responding response cards autism (16,800)
  • PsycINFO
    • Small group instruction and autis* (9, 2 available online)
    • Direct instruction and autis* (19)
    • Choral responding and autis* (1, Kamps, D., libraries)
    • Response cards and autis* (2, not relevant!)
  • JABA : type of search – “all words”
    • Group language instruction autism (0)
    • Small group instruction autism (0)
    • Choral responding autism (0)
    • Response cards autism (1, no relevant!)
overview of literature
Overview of Literature
  • Number of studies – 22
    • Small group instructions 4
    • Direct instruction 1
    • Active student response 2
    • Response cards 8
    • Choral responding 4
    • Comparison of various techniques 2
    • Review of educational interventions for autism 1
overview of literature1
Overview of Literature
  • Participants
    • Age range: 3 – adults (age not specified)
    • Diagnoses: autism, mental retardation, ADHD, learning disabilities, language and cognitive delays, physical disability, hearing impairment, typically developing children
overview of literature2
Overview of Literature
  • Setting
    • Public school, self-contained special education classes
    • Public school, class for students with learning disabilities
    • Public school, regular classes
    • Residential treatment program
    • Early intervention preschool
    • Public preschool
    • Private school for individuals with ASD and intellectualimpairments
    • Private university
overview of literature3
Overview of Literature
  • Experimental Design
    • Alternating treatments – 6
    • Multiple baseline - 4
    • Multiple probe - 1
    • Reversal ABAB -6
    • Reversal with counterbalancing – 1
    • Descriptive - 4
overview of literature4
Overview of Literature
  • Dependent Variables
    • Words read correctly
    • Words learned incidentally
    • On-task behavior
    • Self stimulatory behavior
    • Opportunities to respond (OTR)
    • Students responses during small groups
    • Academic responding
    • Student active engagement (ASR)
    • Student competing behavior (inappropriate behavior)
    • Teacher’s prompts
    • Correct/ incorrect/ no responses
    • Use of statement inferences, facts, and analogies
    • Tests and quizzes scores
overview of literature5
Overview of Literature
  • Independent Variables
    • Choral responding
    • Response cards
    • Hand raising
    • Student-to-student responding
    • Random responding
    • Rotation of material
    • Following the script
    • Correction procedures
    • Asking students to respond independently
    • Number of trials presented
    • Number of responses modeled
    • Number of prompts
    • Number of reinforcement statements delivered
overview of literature6
Overview of Literature
  • Out of 18:
    • IOA 16 (89%)
    • Treatment Integrity 9 (50%)
    • Social Validity 5 (28%)
    • Maintenance 7 (39%)
    • Generalization 3 (17%)
overview of literature7
Overview of Literature
  • Results
    • All showed effectiveness of the treatments
    • 89% showed that data were accurate
    • 50% assessed procedural implementation
    • Only 28% assessed clinical significance
    • In only 39% attempts to maintain the skills
    • Low generalization
overview of literature8
Overview of Literature
  • Out of 22 studies
    • Munro Flores, M., & Ganz, J. B. (2007). Effectiveness of direct instruction for teaching statement inference, use od facts, and analigoies to students with developmental disabilities and reading delays. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 244-251.
    • Barbetta, P. M., Heron T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of sight words by students with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied BehaviorAnalysis,26,111-119.
overview of literature9
Overview of Literature
  • Future Research
    • External validity: address generalization to larger population/groups, participants with various and profound disorders (autism); across settings, other responses
    • Address maintenance of skills, fidelity of treatments and social validity
    • Response cards: population with autism; number of questions
    • Comparison of various instructions (e.g., choral vs. individual responding)
    • Analysis of teacher skills necessary to conduct a group and use the techniques
    • Using group format to teach other skills
slide14

“Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Why selected this article?
    • Heavily cited in other studies and ASAT website
    • The only one on small group instruction/choral responding for children with autism found through PsicINFO
    • Published in the American Journal on Mental Retardation in 1994
    • Online archive starts from 1997
    • library
slide15

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Purpose: to compare two small group instructional conditions for students with autism or mental retardation
  • Importance of question: few studies have demonstrated small group instruction for students with autism
slide16

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Participants: 24 students; age range 5-12;
  • Selected from 6 classes
  • 12 diagnosed with autism and 12 with MR
  • Had comparable developmental characteristics (CA, MA, IQ)
  • Setting: self-contained special education classes in public school elementary classrooms
slide17

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Instructional tasks
    • Students assigned to small groups
    • Taught language and functional skills
    • Pictures and common objects related to activities, places, and people
    • 5 basic categories: household items, clothing, food, functional activities/objects, and community places and things
slide18

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • DVs
    • Opportunities to respond, OTR, (teacher statements/prompts and students prompts via interactions) and students’ responding during small groups (collected by frequency counts)
    • Student acquisition (via weekly curriculum test, a 20-item assessment used on a pre- and posttest basis to determine gains)
    • Academic responding/engagement time (by systematic observationsusingMS-CISSAR coding system)
    • Data were summarized in tables and graphs
slide19

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Control condition:“no instruction” pre- and posttests probes at the beginning of each experimental condition
  • Baseline:instructional condition (teacher taught receptive and expressive language via DTT, modeling, prompting, error correction)
  • Intervention:enhanced groups instructional condition (choral responding, student-to-student responding, rotation of material every 5 min, random responding - unpredictable call on student)
slide20

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Design: reversal with counterbalancing across classes (BABAB and ABABB); functional relationship
  • IOA: for 25% of session (low counts/high counts and x 100); IOA during intervention condition > 80%
  • No treatment integrity
  • Social validity: consumer satisfaction surveys, 5 out of 6 teachers continued implementation
  • No generalization
  • No maintenance
slide21

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Results
    • Increased OTR
    • Increased levels of student responding
    • Higher gains on weekly assessments during enhanced group instruction
    • Increased levels of academic responding and
    • Decreases in passive or inappropriate student behaviors during intervention
slide24

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • Further Research
    • Treatment integrity
    • Maintenance
    • Generalization
    • Effects of typical peer inclusion on learning
    • Comparison to other instructions a
slide25

Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities”by Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E. P., Leonard, B. R., and Daoust, P. M. (1994).

  • EBP?
references
References
  • Barbetta, P.M., Heron, T. E., and Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of sight words by students with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 111-119.
  • Blackwell, A. J., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2005). Using guide notes, choral responding, and response cards to increase student performance. The International Journal of Special Education, 20, 1-5.
  • Cavanaugh, R. A., Heward, W. L., and Donelson F. (1996). Effects of response cards during lesson closure on the academic performance of secondary students in an earth science course. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,29, 403-406.
  • Connell, M. C., Carta, J., Lutz, S., Randall, C., et al. (1993). Building independence during in-class transitions: Teaching in-class transition skills to preschoolers with developmental delays through choral-response-based self-assessement and contingent praise. Education & Treatment of Children, 16, 160-174.
  • Davis, L. L., & O’Neill, R. E. (2004). Use of response cards with a group of students with learning disabilities including those for whom english is a second language. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 219-222.
  • Gardner, III, R., Heward, W. L., and Grossi, T. A. Effects of response cards on student participation and academic achievement: A systematic replication with inner-city students during whole-class science instruction. Journal ofApplied Behavior Analysis, 27, 63-71.
  • Godfrey, S. A., Grisham-Brown, J., Schuster, J. W., and Hemmeter, M. L. (2003). The effects of three techniques on student participation with preschool children. Education and treatment of children, 26, 255-272.
  • Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Cavanaugh, R. A., Courson, F. H., Grossi, T. A., Barbetta, P. M. (1996). Teaching exceptional children, Winter 1996, 4-10.
  • Kamps, D. M., Dugan, E.P., and Leonard, B. R. (1994). Enhanced small group instruction using choral responding and student interaction for children with autism and developmental disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 99, 60-73.
  • Kamps, D. M., and Walker, D. (1990). A comparison of instructional arrangements for children with autism served in a public school setting. Education & Treatment of Children, 13, 197-214.
references1
References
  • Kelly, J. A., Wildman, B. J., and Berler, E. S. (1980). Small group behavioral training to improve the job interview skills repertoire of mildly retarded adolescents. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 461-471.
  • Ketterer Berong, A., Schuster, J. W., Morse, T. E., and Collins, B. C. (2007). The effects of response cards on Active participation and social behavior of students with moderate and severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental andPhysical Disabilities, 19, 187-199.
  • Lyle, J. G., and Goyen, J. D. (1975). Effect of speed of exposure and difficulty of Discrimination on Visual Recognition of Retarded Readers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 673-676.
  • Marmolejo, E. K., Wilder, D. A., and Bradley, L. (2004). A preliminary analysis of the effects of response cards on student performance and participation in an upper division university course. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 405-410.
  • Munro Flores, M., and Ganz, J. B. (2007). Effectiveness of direct instruction for teaching statement inference, use of facts, and analogies to students with developmental disabilities and reading delays. Focus on Autism and OtherDevelopmental Disabilities, 22, 244-251.
  • Narayan, J. S., Heward, W. L., Gardner III, R., Courson, F. H., and Omness, C. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participationin an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 483-490.
  • Perco, S, and McLaughlin, T. F. (2002). Autism: Characteristics, causes and some educational interventions. International Journal of Special Education, 17, 59-74.
  • Repp, A. C., and Karsh, K. G. (1992). An analysis of a group teaching procedure for persons with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 701-712.
  • schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., and Fitzgerald, J. R. (1987). Group instruction with profoundly retarded persons: Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of a remunerative work skill. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 97-105.
references2
References
  • Wolery, M., Ault, M. J., Doyle, P. M., Gast, D. L., et al. (1992). Choral and individual responding during small group instruction: Identification of interactional effects. Education & Treatment of Children, 15, 289-309.
  • Wood, C. L., and Heward, L. W. (2004). Good noise! Using choral responding to increase the effectiveness of group instruction. Unpublished manuscript.
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