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OBSERVING AN OPEN LEARNING PROCESS?. Alain MILLE. Argument. Context : Massively OPEN Online Course Observing (the learning process) for understanding and acting! L earner(s) T utor(s) Teacher(s) D esigner(s) R esearcher(s) Constructing relevant knowledge

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Observing an open learning process

OBSERVINGAN OPEN LEARNING PROCESS?

Alain MILLE


Argument

Argument

  • Context : Massively OPENOnline Course

  • Observing (the learning process) for understanding and acting!

    • Learner(s)

    • Tutor(s)

    • Teacher(s)

    • Designer(s)

    • Researcher(s)

  • Constructing relevant knowledge

    • From heterogeneous and evolving situations

    • For very different skills and tasks

    • From different sources!

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What s the problem for a learner

What’s the problemfor a learner

  • The learnerknows:

    • Whathe/shedoesduring the learningactivity

    • What are his/herlearning goals (if any…)

    • The context in whichhe/shedoes the activity

  • The learnerdoes not know:

    • The epistemologicalcontext of the lesson

    • The didacticalcontext

    • The pedagogicalcontext

    • The implementationchoices for the activity

    • What are doing the others

    • How to assesshis/herlevel

    • How to ask for help

?

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What s the problem for a teacher

What’s the problem for a teacher

  • The teacherknows:

    • The epistemologicalcontext of the lesson

    • The didacticalcontext

    • The pedagogicalcontext

    • (The productions of the learner, if he/shecanaccess to them)

  • The teacherdoes not know:

    • How the learnerdoes the activity

    • Whatis the goal of the learner

    • What are the externaleducationalresources of the learner

    • How the learnerworkswith the others

    • ...

?

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What s the problem for a tutor

What’s the problem for a tutor

  • The tutorknows:

    • The didacticalcontext

    • The pedagogicalcontext

    • The content of the forums, chats, blogs, …

  • The tutordoes not know:

    • How the learnerdoes the activity

    • Whatis the goal of the learner

    • What are the externaleducationalresources

    • How the learnerworkswith the others

    • The epistemologicalcontext

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What s the problem for a designer

What’s the problem for a designer?

  • The designer knows:

    • The pedagocicalcontext

    • The generalrules for Computer Human Interactions

    • The logics of the proposedactivity

  • The designer does not know:

    • The learnerexperience of his/her design

    • The real Information Architecture (includingothertools the learner uses)

    • The way the learners are able to collaborate

?

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What s the problem for a researcher

What’s the problem for a researcher?

  • The researcherknows:

    • Differenttheories and methodsaccording to his/herspeciality

    • Differentontologicalcontextaccording to his/herspeciality

    • How to interpretrelatively consistent data sets

  • The researcherdoes not know:

    • How to normalizedifferent data sets fromdifferentplatforms

    • How to normalizedifferent data fromdifferentlearners on the sameplatform

    • How to assess the learninglevelwhenverydifferentlearning goals are present and unknown

    • How to studyverydynamic and variouslearning situations

?

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How can they learn what they don t know

How cantheylearnwhattheydon’t know?

  • For the teacher, the designer, the tutor and the researcher:

    • All of them = ONE team

      • DESIGN ORIENTED RESEARCH to share their knowledge during the design activity, and to learn from each other

WWW

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How can they learn what they don t know1

How cantheylearnwhattheydon’t know?

  • For the teacher, the designer, the tutor and the researcher:

    • All of them = ONE team

      • DESIGN ORIENTED RESEARCH to share their knowledge during the design activity, and to learn from each other

  • During the Mooc, learner activity is interpreted through :

    • The INTERACTION traces!

  • But, how to construct interpretation knowledge for such traces?

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What is an interaction trace

Whatis an interaction trace?

  • We know that:

    • A trace isconstructedby an « agent » on the basis of whatcanbe « observed » in the environment of an activity

  • The question becomes: « Whatdoesitmeans « to observe »?

    • How does the processbegin?

    • How does the process end? Doesit end?

  • How to understandwhat has been observed?

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Observing understanding 1

Observing + understanding (1)

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Observing understanding 2

Observing + understanding (2)

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Observing understanding 3

Observing + understanding (3)

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2 interpretation paths 2 stories

2 interpretationpaths = 2 # stories

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What is the true story

Whatis the true story?

The Fox knows (surely) / its version

The Jay knows (if able to testify to…), probablyanother one version

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More formally

More formally…

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Modeled trace

Modeled Trace

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Managing m traces tbms

Managing M-Traces (TBMS)

Trace Based Management System (RDF lib)

http://liris.cnrs.fr/sbt-dev/tbs/doku.php?id=public:ktbs

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Observing a m o oc

OBSERVING A MOOC

  • The learner get an ID and logs in (User-ID)

    • From the platform

    • (With an Open ID)

  • The learner selects a learning activity (Activity-ID)

    • On the platform -> choosing a course

    • (by defining its proper activity)

  • The learner asks to be traced

    • His trace is identified by [User-ID]+[Activity-ID]

    • His trace is stored in an independent repository, gathering server information and client information

    • The user can see and manage his M-Trace

      • Learners can “give” their traces to the teacher, manager of the learning activity for tutoring, managing, …, other purposes

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Illustration lyon s experiment

Illustration (Lyon’sexperiment)

Browser

(client)

Platform

Server

Platform DB

Platform

Listener

Platformpage

Logs

U_1

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Illustration what we do server side

Illustration (what we do/server side)

Browser

(client)

Platform

Server

Platform DB

Platform

Listener

Platformpage

Logs

+ trace listener

kTBS– users

/ (platform)

U_1

Trace Based

Management System

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Illustration what we did server side

Illustration (what we did/server side)

Browser

(client)

Platform

Server

Platform DB

Platform

Listener

Browser

Extension

Platformpage

Logs

+ trace listener

+ browser listener

kTBS– users

/ platform

U_1

Trace Based

Management System

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Illustration trace based assistance navigator side

Illustration (trace based assistance/ navigator side)

Browser

(client)

Platform

Server

Platform DB

Browser

Extension

Platform

Listener

M-trace

Assistant

Platformpage

Logs

+ trace listener

Browser (client) parameterized

Obsels collection

kTBS

Requests

kTBS– users

/ platform

U_1

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What does it change 1

Whatdoesit change? (1)

1) AugmentedReflexivity on the Learning Activity

Both server and navigatoreventstogether

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What does it change 2

Whatdoesit change? (2)

2) Indicators engineering

DesigningIndicators

-> trace transformation

Computingindicators

-> new transformed traces

Getting, sharing indicators

-> store of indicators

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What does it change 3

Whatdoesit change? (3)

3) Collaborative interpretation of the learningactivity

Primary trace (trace model + obsels)

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What does it change 31

Whatdoesit change? (3)

3) Collaborative interpretation of the learningactivity

Transformed trace (sharedwith the teacher)

Transformed trace (for sharing with the teacher)

A

A

Primary trace (trace model + obsels)

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What does it change 32

Whatdoesit change? (3)

3) Collaborative interpretation of the learningactivity

Transformed trace (sharedwith a peer)

Transformed trace (sharedwith the teacher)

Transformed trace (for sharing with a peer)

Transformed trace (for sharing with the teacher)

A

A

A

A

B

Primary trace (trace model + obsels)

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What does it change 33

Whatdoesit change? (3)

3) Collaborative interpretation of the learningactivity

Transformed trace (sharedwith a peer)

Transformed trace (sharedwith the teacher)

Transformed trace (for sharing with a peer)

Transformed trace (for sharing with the teacher)

A

A

A

A

B

Primary trace (trace model + obsels)

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What does it change 4

Whatdoesit change? (4)

4) Explainingthe interpretation

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, ol

T2

tb

T1

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, om

ta

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, ok…, on

T0

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What does it change 41

Whatdoesit change? (4)

4) Explainingthe interpretation

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, ol

T2

Why do yousaythatOtistrue in T2?

tb

T1

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, om

ta

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, ok…, on

T0

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What does it change 42

Whatdoesit change? (4)

4) Explainingthe interpretation

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, ol

T2

Why do yousaythatOiistrue in T2?

tb

Because of tb(o2,oi)/T1

T1

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, om

ta

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, ok…, on

T0

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What does it change 43

Whatdoesit change? (4)

4) Explainingthe interpretation

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, ol

T2

Why do yousaythatOiistrue in T2?

tb

Because of tb(o2,oi)/T1

T1

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, …, om

ta

o1, o2, o3, …, ot, ok…, on

T0

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What does it change 5

Whatdoesit change? (5)

5) Building normalized traces fromdifferent sources

MoocDB Trace (anyplatform)

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Transformed-Trace

Primary-Trace (Edx)

Primary-trace (Claroline)

Primary-trace (Coursera)

Gathering information

Gathering information

Gathering information

Log trace (Claroline)

Log trace (EDx)

Log trace (Coursera)

Data (Coursera)

Data (EDx)

Data (Claroline)

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What does it change

Whatdoesit change? (…)

  • 6) Replay in a new context

  • 7) Building patterns of good practices

  • 8) Mapping Trace Models to ontologies

    • 6-1) To build ontologies fromsharedexperience

    • 6-2) To build Trace Modelsaccording to a precise

    • semantics

  • 9) Discovering « learning patterns »

    • 7-1) Batch -> preparing traces to bemined

    • 7-2) Interactively -> for diagnosis and remediation

  • 10) Building automatafrom traces

    • 8-1) Interactively to manage missing data

    • 8-2) For simulation, prediction, …

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What does it change the web

Whatdoesit change? -> the web!

  • Think WEB

    • Anyinterestingthingshouldbeaccessedthrough an URL

      • ID information

      • Traces

      • Store of indicators

      • EducationalResources

    • Learnerdashboard = set of widgetsconectedtogether

    • Linked data

  • ThinkSemanticWeb

    • Addingsemantics to the description of the activity

    • Enablingreasoning on the activity

    • Making possible trace modelsmapping

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Main challenges

Main challenges

  • Technical challenges

    • Performance (RDF) -> Web Semantic question (*)

    • Privacy (Auth2) (*)

    • Normalization?

  • Research challenges

    • User experience (traces) (*)

    • Capitalizing and sharing experience (level, protocols, mechanisms, …)(*)

      • Fine grained sharing -> new privacy questions

    • « Interactive » learninganalytics (*)

    • Managingnegociationsduringthe interpretationprocess

      • How to assist the collaborative interpretationbetweendifferentactors/ traces?

    • Connecting local semantics (trace model) to sharedsemantics (ontologies)

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Other readings and references

Otherreadings and references

  • Research questions and methods on the MOOCs What's new? (withsurveys’ references)

  • Traced Experience Based Reasoning (otherexamples of using M-Traces for learning)

  • https://www.zotero.org/groups/coat_cnrs (a collaborative bibliography)

  • The GitHub of the kTB(M)S

  • The GitHub of TraceMe

  • The publications of SILEX

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One other story

One other story?

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Discussion

Discussion…

  • Thankyou for your questions!

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Illustration with trace me 1

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (1)

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Illustration with trace me 2

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (2)

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Illustration with trace me 3

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (3)

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Illustration with trace me 4

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (4)

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Illustration with trace me 5

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (5)

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Illustration with trace me 6

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (6)

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Illustration with trace me 7 1

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (7-1)

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Illustration with trace me 7 2

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (7-2)

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Illustration with trace me 7 3

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (7-3)

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Illustration with trace me 8

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (8)

https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/moluti/eibmcehgadjapieaijmmdbgoblacgpii

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Illustration with trace me 9 1

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (9-1)

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Illustration with trace me 9 2

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (9-2)

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Illustration with trace me 9 3

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (9-3)

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Illustration with trace me 9 4

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (9-4)

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Illustration with trace me 10 1

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (10-1)

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Illustration with trace me 10 2

Illustration with « TRACE-ME » (10-2)

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