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ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction. 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya. Module 6: Small Hydro. Divas B. Basnyat. Contents. Introduction Definition Fundamentals and Principles Small hydro in Africa Applications of small hydro

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ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction

19th – 23rd June 2006

Nairobi, Kenya


Module 6:Small Hydro

Divas B. Basnyat


Contents

  • Introduction

  • Definition

  • Fundamentals and Principles

  • Small hydro in Africa

  • Applications of small hydro

  • Barriers to development and implementation

  • Design Aids

  • Case study - Nepal


Introduction

  • Small hydro –for isolated grid, central grid and dedicated supply

  • Minimum environmental impacts mainly thru run of river schemes

  • Widely used for:

    • Rural residential lighting, TV, radio and telephone

    • Rural small industries, agriculture and other productive use

    • Grid based power generation

  • Reliable, low operating costs, independent of energy price volatality


Hydro Scheme


Definition – size

Source: http://www.microhydropower.net/size


Definition (flow, runner dia)

  • RETScreen International

  • Less than 5 kW - Pico


Fundamental and Principles

  • Hydropower generation process

  • Relationship between power, flow and head

  • Types of hydro projects

  • Main components

  • Power/energy calculations


Hydro Power Process

  • Potential energy of flowing water converted to kinetic energy as it travels thru the penstock

  • Kinetic energy of the flowing water is converted to mechanical energy as it turn the turbines

  • Mechanical energy of the rotating turbine is converted to electrical energy as the turbine shaft rotates the generator


Power = f(Q,H)

  • P = **g* Q*H

    • P = power in Watts

    •  = efficiency (micro – 50-60%, small > 80%)

    •  = density of water (1000 kg/m3)

    • g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)

    • Q = flow passing thru the turbine (m3/s)

    • H = head or drop of water (m) (difference between forebay level and turbine level or tail water level)

  • Considering  = 80%

    • P = 8*Q*H kW (approx)


Small Hydro - Types

  • Type of grid:

    • Central grid

    • Isolated or off-grid

    • Captive or Dedicated supply (e.g. to cement factory)

  • Type of Regulation:

    • Run of river (lower firm capacity, power varies with flow)

    • Run of river with pondage (some daily peaking)

    • Reservoir type (higher firm power, larger area inundated)

    • Pumped storage (utilizing off-peak energy to pump water, less likely in small scale)

Sketch Source: BHA, 2005


Component: Civil Works

  • Typically account for 50-60% of initial costs

  • Diversion dam or weir

    • Low dam of simple construction for run-of-river

    • Concrete, wood, masonry

  • Water conveyance

    • Intake with trashrack and gate; tailrace at exit

    • Sediment handling structure

    • Excavated canal, underground tunnel and/or penstock

    • Valves/gates at turbine entrance/exit, for maintenance

  • Power house

    • Houses turbine, mechanical, and electrical equipment


Turbines

  • In run-of-river, flow rate is quite variable

    • Turbine should function well over a range of flow rates or multiple turbines should be used

  • Reaction: Francis, fixed pitch propeller, Kaplan

    • For low to medium head applications

    • Submerged turbine uses water pressure and kinetic energy

  • Impulse: Pelton, Turgo, crossflow

    • For high head applications

    • Uses kinetic energy of a high speed jet of water

Source: BHA, 2005


Turbines

Pelton

Francis

Kaplan


Electrical and other equipment

  • Generator

    • Induction – used to supply to large grid

    • Synchronous – stand-alone and isolated-grid applications

  • Other equipment

    • Speed increaser to match turbine to generator

    • Valves, electronic controls, protection devices

    • Transformer


Power/Energy Calculation

  • Flow Duration Curves – annual and monthly

  • Compensation flow

    • Downstream release (environmental flow)

    • Irrigation requirement (if any)

    • Leakage

  • Design head

  • Head losses – headworks, headrace, penstock

  • Example – Design flow = 4.58 m3/s, Gross head = 245m,  = 85%, Outage – 10%


Flow Duration Curve


Example- Calculation

Power Duration

Monthly Energy


Head Works-River Diversion


Settling Basin

Headrace Canal


Tunnel

Penstock


Fish Ladder


Small Hydro Utilization in Africa

Source: Karekezi and Kithyoma, 2005


Tea and Small Hydro in East Africa

  • To reduce the electrical energy in the tea processing industries in countries

Source: http://greeningtea.unep.org.


Uganda

  • Hydro installed capacity – 320MW (only 16.7 MW small)

  • 1% electrification in rural areas

  • Mini hydro sites (non-Nile) – 200 MW identified

  • Can benefit from CDM

Source: Taylor and Upadhaya, 2005


Application- Electricity Generation

  • Domestic Load

    • Number of households

      • Electrical items in all households (light, TV, Radio)

  • Industrial/Commercial Load

    • Agro processing

    • Small enterprises

    • Shops

  • Social Load

    • School, Health post etc.

  • Others


Electricity Demand- Isolated

Peak Demand


Electricity Demand- Central Grid

Source: Nepal Electricity Authority


Application : Mechanical Power

  • Lift irrigation, water supply

  • Agro processing - grain milling

  • Saw milling, lathe machine


Water Mills

Traditional Water Mills

Improved Water Mill (IWM)

Paddy hulling with IWM

Source: AEPC


Barriers

  • High initial costs

  • Competition on investment from other sectors of the economy

  • Institutional shortcomings

    • Lack of coherent policy framework

    • Monopolistic role of national power utilities

  • Human Resources Requirements – local capability

  • Infrastructure constraints- access road, transmission line

  • Risks – for developer and lending agencies

  • Time and cost over-run


Design Aids


Nepal – Case Study


Nepal Case Study- Contents

  • Potential and status

  • Hydropower Development Policy

  • Small Hydro Project (SHP) Financing Modalities

  • Investment scenario

  • Barriers and Constraints

  • Reform Process

  • Examples: SHP Implementation


Potential and Status

  • Potential

    • Theoretical potential – 83,000 MW

    • Economical potential – 42,000 MW

    • 727,000 GWh/year based on average flow

    • 145,900 GWh/year based on 95% exceedance flow

  • Status

    • Current hydro capacity over 600 MW

    • About 15% below 10 MW

    • In addition, 14.6 MW of MH (1-100 kW, 2200 schemes upto 2003)

    • 25,000 traditional water mills (0.5kW each)


SHP Financing Modalities

  • Donor assisted concessional loans – presently only for large hydro

  • International private companies with commercial loan

  • National private companies with local commercial loan

  • National Utility (NEA) through local commercial loans – mainly between >5MW)

  • Government/donor support agencies like AEPC provide subsidy and technical support for micro hydro development


Cost Composition

National Electric Utility

International Private

National Private Sector


Average Cost – Past Projects

  • Public sector, donor concessionary projects (60MW – 144 MW) - $3,100 – $5,600/kW

  • Int’l private sector with int’l commercial financing (36 MW and 60 MW) - $2,400 - $2,800/kW

  • Local Pvt. Sector with local currency funding (3MW project Piluwa) - $1,450/kW

  • Micro Hydro (<100kW) - $1,982/kW

Nepali investment - showing the way to lower energy prices


Nepal- Investment Scenario

  • 7 projects (55MW) completed thru commercial credit from local banks (60m$), technical support by I/NGOs, Aid Agencies (e.g. WINROCK, USAID, GTZ)

  • Local banks and financial institutions (30m$/year)

  • Power bonds

  • Power development fund (30m $)

  • For 1-100 kW- subsidy provided by AEPC


Power Development Fund

  • Initial capital of US$ 35 million by Gov. of Nepal and the World Bank (WB)

  • To provide project finance “core funding” to supplement private sector

  • Partially finance up to 60% of < 10 MW hydropower projects and up to 40% > 10 MW


Barriers and Constraints Faced

  • Institutional Framework - unclear and overlapping roles and responsibilities of existing institutions

  • Inadequate internal financial resources including mechanisms for its mobilizations on account of a capital market

  • Inconsistencies and conflicts in various acts/policies/ regulations

  • Shortcomings in the compliance of acts and regulations

  • Political risk and the adverse situation for investment

  • Market risk

  • License holding by IPPs

  • Shortage of a specialized human resource in financial institutions with professional expertise to appraise, implement and monitor hydropower projects

  • Isolated rural communities/loads (low load factor)

Source: IPPAN, 2004


Reform Process

  • Hydropower Policy (1992, 2001)

  • New Electricity Act - unbundling

  • Rural Energy Policy (2006)

    • Electricity supply- 12% from isolated (micro/small) hydro systems, 3% from alternate sources

  • Community Electricity Distribution Bye-law (2003)

    • Rural Electric Entities (REEs) – bulk power from NEA, CBOs/NGOs own & manage distribution

    • 80% grant from government, 20% community participation


Reform Process (cont’d)

  • Market risks addressed by PPA

  • Support for pre-investment (cost sharing)

  • Due diligence training to financial institutions

  • Public – private complementarities

    • Local financing of hydropower projects- local FIs, employee provident funds, army welfare funds

    • Public Sector – multipurpose, larger projects and transmission line


Hydropower Policy - 2001

  • Drivers

    • Increase access to electricity & contribute towards energy security

    • Stimulate economic growth

    • Attract private investment

    • Facilitate power trade

  • Incentives

    • No license required for SHP up to 1 MW

    • No royalty imposed for SHP up to 1 MW

    • Rs 100 ($1.4)/kW & 1.75% energy royalty for 15 years and Rs 1000 ($14)/kW & 10% energy royalty thereafter

    • 1% royalty to village development committees

  • Policy/reform measures in the offing

    • Unbundling of national power utility (NEA)

    • Handing over of small hydro to communities and private sector by NEA


SHP Policy

  • Fixed buy back rate (up to 5 MW)

    • Rs 3.00 ($0.04) for wet seasons (mid Apr. – mid Nov.)

    • Rs 4.25 ($0.057) for dry seasons (mid Nov. – mid Apr.)

    • + 6% annual escalation for the first 5 years

    • + from Q90% design flow was reduced Q65%

  • For 5MW – 10 MW – at (competitive) negotiated price basis


SHP Examples


Improved Water Mill

Turbine Mill

Micro Hydro

  • 63% community owned

  • 37% privately owned

  • About 9.2 HH/kW

Data source- AEPC (2005)

Micro Hydro


Piluwa Khola1

  • Installed Capacity : 3 MW

  • Plant Load Factor : 74.4 %

  • PPA Signed on : 2000 Jan.

  • Contract energy :19.54 GWh

  • Dry months:4.89 GWh (25%)

  • Wet months:14.65 GWh (75%)

  • Production Started :2003 Sep.

  • Commercial Operation :2003 Oct

  • Company Established in March 1997

1 Source: Pandey, 2005


Piluwa Khola

  • Total cost – 4.6 m$

  • Cost/kW – 1462 $/kW

  • Consortium financing

  • Loan from local banks - 56%

  • Equity – 35%

  • Bridge gap loan – 9%


Piluwa Khola

  • Nepal Electricity Authority pays the bill of the purchased energy every month with a time lag of 35 days.

  • The payment comes directly to the lead bank account. The bank deducts the principal and interest of the loan from the payment.

  • The company gets remaining balance if there is something left over.


Jhankre Mini Hydro2

  • 500 kW plant with H= 180m Design Q=450l/s

  • Intake shared with Farmer Managed Irrigation Project – 13 ha (conflict in operation)

  • Owner Khimti Power developer

  • Now being handed over to community

  • Plant built to replace diesel generators during construction of Khimti Project (60MW)

  • After Completion of Khimti- for rural electrification (~5000 HH supplied)

2 Source: Karki, 2004


Jhankre – Power Sharing Agreement

  • Temporary irrigation supply during construction

  • Hydro developer to refurbish irrigation canal

  • Employment priority to local

  • Existing irrigation water requirements for wheat, rice seedlings and rice prioritized


Thank You


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