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ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction. 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya. Module 6: Small Hydro. Divas B. Basnyat. Contents. Introduction Definition Fundamentals and Principles Small hydro in Africa Applications of small hydro

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Adb finesse training course on renewable energy energy efficiency for poverty reduction

ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction

19th – 23rd June 2006

Nairobi, Kenya


Module 6 small hydro

Module 6:Small Hydro

Divas B. Basnyat


Contents

Contents

  • Introduction

  • Definition

  • Fundamentals and Principles

  • Small hydro in Africa

  • Applications of small hydro

  • Barriers to development and implementation

  • Design Aids

  • Case study - Nepal


Introduction

Introduction

  • Small hydro –for isolated grid, central grid and dedicated supply

  • Minimum environmental impacts mainly thru run of river schemes

  • Widely used for:

    • Rural residential lighting, TV, radio and telephone

    • Rural small industries, agriculture and other productive use

    • Grid based power generation

  • Reliable, low operating costs, independent of energy price volatality


Hydro scheme

Hydro Scheme


Definition size

Definition – size

Source: http://www.microhydropower.net/size


Definition flow runner dia

Definition (flow, runner dia)

  • RETScreen International

  • Less than 5 kW - Pico


Fundamental and principles

Fundamental and Principles

  • Hydropower generation process

  • Relationship between power, flow and head

  • Types of hydro projects

  • Main components

  • Power/energy calculations


Hydro power process

Hydro Power Process

  • Potential energy of flowing water converted to kinetic energy as it travels thru the penstock

  • Kinetic energy of the flowing water is converted to mechanical energy as it turn the turbines

  • Mechanical energy of the rotating turbine is converted to electrical energy as the turbine shaft rotates the generator


Power f q h

Power = f(Q,H)

  • P = **g* Q*H

    • P = power in Watts

    •  = efficiency (micro – 50-60%, small > 80%)

    •  = density of water (1000 kg/m3)

    • g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)

    • Q = flow passing thru the turbine (m3/s)

    • H = head or drop of water (m) (difference between forebay level and turbine level or tail water level)

  • Considering  = 80%

    • P = 8*Q*H kW (approx)


Small hydro types

Small Hydro - Types

  • Type of grid:

    • Central grid

    • Isolated or off-grid

    • Captive or Dedicated supply (e.g. to cement factory)

  • Type of Regulation:

    • Run of river (lower firm capacity, power varies with flow)

    • Run of river with pondage (some daily peaking)

    • Reservoir type (higher firm power, larger area inundated)

    • Pumped storage (utilizing off-peak energy to pump water, less likely in small scale)

Sketch Source: BHA, 2005


Component civil works

Component: Civil Works

  • Typically account for 50-60% of initial costs

  • Diversion dam or weir

    • Low dam of simple construction for run-of-river

    • Concrete, wood, masonry

  • Water conveyance

    • Intake with trashrack and gate; tailrace at exit

    • Sediment handling structure

    • Excavated canal, underground tunnel and/or penstock

    • Valves/gates at turbine entrance/exit, for maintenance

  • Power house

    • Houses turbine, mechanical, and electrical equipment


Turbines

Turbines

  • In run-of-river, flow rate is quite variable

    • Turbine should function well over a range of flow rates or multiple turbines should be used

  • Reaction: Francis, fixed pitch propeller, Kaplan

    • For low to medium head applications

    • Submerged turbine uses water pressure and kinetic energy

  • Impulse: Pelton, Turgo, crossflow

    • For high head applications

    • Uses kinetic energy of a high speed jet of water

Source: BHA, 2005


Turbines1

Turbines

Pelton

Francis

Kaplan


Electrical and other equipment

Electrical and other equipment

  • Generator

    • Induction – used to supply to large grid

    • Synchronous – stand-alone and isolated-grid applications

  • Other equipment

    • Speed increaser to match turbine to generator

    • Valves, electronic controls, protection devices

    • Transformer


Power energy calculation

Power/Energy Calculation

  • Flow Duration Curves – annual and monthly

  • Compensation flow

    • Downstream release (environmental flow)

    • Irrigation requirement (if any)

    • Leakage

  • Design head

  • Head losses – headworks, headrace, penstock

  • Example – Design flow = 4.58 m3/s, Gross head = 245m,  = 85%, Outage – 10%


Flow duration curve

Flow Duration Curve


Example calculation

Example- Calculation

Power Duration

Monthly Energy


Head works river diversion

Head Works-River Diversion


Settling basin

Settling Basin

Headrace Canal


Tunnel

Tunnel

Penstock


Fish ladder

Fish Ladder


Small hydro utilization in africa

Small Hydro Utilization in Africa

Source: Karekezi and Kithyoma, 2005


Tea and small hydro in east africa

Tea and Small Hydro in East Africa

  • To reduce the electrical energy in the tea processing industries in countries

Source: http://greeningtea.unep.org.


Uganda

Uganda

  • Hydro installed capacity – 320MW (only 16.7 MW small)

  • 1% electrification in rural areas

  • Mini hydro sites (non-Nile) – 200 MW identified

  • Can benefit from CDM

Source: Taylor and Upadhaya, 2005


Application electricity generation

Application- Electricity Generation

  • Domestic Load

    • Number of households

      • Electrical items in all households (light, TV, Radio)

  • Industrial/Commercial Load

    • Agro processing

    • Small enterprises

    • Shops

  • Social Load

    • School, Health post etc.

  • Others


Electricity demand isolated

Electricity Demand- Isolated

Peak Demand


Electricity demand central grid

Electricity Demand- Central Grid

Source: Nepal Electricity Authority


Application mechanical power

Application : Mechanical Power

  • Lift irrigation, water supply

  • Agro processing - grain milling

  • Saw milling, lathe machine


Water mills

Water Mills

Traditional Water Mills

Improved Water Mill (IWM)

Paddy hulling with IWM

Source: AEPC


Barriers

Barriers

  • High initial costs

  • Competition on investment from other sectors of the economy

  • Institutional shortcomings

    • Lack of coherent policy framework

    • Monopolistic role of national power utilities

  • Human Resources Requirements – local capability

  • Infrastructure constraints- access road, transmission line

  • Risks – for developer and lending agencies

  • Time and cost over-run


Design aids

Design Aids


Nepal case study

Nepal – Case Study


Nepal case study contents

Nepal Case Study- Contents

  • Potential and status

  • Hydropower Development Policy

  • Small Hydro Project (SHP) Financing Modalities

  • Investment scenario

  • Barriers and Constraints

  • Reform Process

  • Examples: SHP Implementation


Potential and status

Potential and Status

  • Potential

    • Theoretical potential – 83,000 MW

    • Economical potential – 42,000 MW

    • 727,000 GWh/year based on average flow

    • 145,900 GWh/year based on 95% exceedance flow

  • Status

    • Current hydro capacity over 600 MW

    • About 15% below 10 MW

    • In addition, 14.6 MW of MH (1-100 kW, 2200 schemes upto 2003)

    • 25,000 traditional water mills (0.5kW each)


Shp financing modalities

SHP Financing Modalities

  • Donor assisted concessional loans – presently only for large hydro

  • International private companies with commercial loan

  • National private companies with local commercial loan

  • National Utility (NEA) through local commercial loans – mainly between >5MW)

  • Government/donor support agencies like AEPC provide subsidy and technical support for micro hydro development


Cost composition

Cost Composition

National Electric Utility

International Private

National Private Sector


Average cost past projects

Average Cost – Past Projects

  • Public sector, donor concessionary projects (60MW – 144 MW) - $3,100 – $5,600/kW

  • Int’l private sector with int’l commercial financing (36 MW and 60 MW) - $2,400 - $2,800/kW

  • Local Pvt. Sector with local currency funding (3MW project Piluwa) - $1,450/kW

  • Micro Hydro (<100kW) - $1,982/kW

Nepali investment - showing the way to lower energy prices


Nepal investment scenario

Nepal- Investment Scenario

  • 7 projects (55MW) completed thru commercial credit from local banks (60m$), technical support by I/NGOs, Aid Agencies (e.g. WINROCK, USAID, GTZ)

  • Local banks and financial institutions (30m$/year)

  • Power bonds

  • Power development fund (30m $)

  • For 1-100 kW- subsidy provided by AEPC


Power development fund

Power Development Fund

  • Initial capital of US$ 35 million by Gov. of Nepal and the World Bank (WB)

  • To provide project finance “core funding” to supplement private sector

  • Partially finance up to 60% of < 10 MW hydropower projects and up to 40% > 10 MW


Barriers and constraints faced

Barriers and Constraints Faced

  • Institutional Framework - unclear and overlapping roles and responsibilities of existing institutions

  • Inadequate internal financial resources including mechanisms for its mobilizations on account of a capital market

  • Inconsistencies and conflicts in various acts/policies/ regulations

  • Shortcomings in the compliance of acts and regulations

  • Political risk and the adverse situation for investment

  • Market risk

  • License holding by IPPs

  • Shortage of a specialized human resource in financial institutions with professional expertise to appraise, implement and monitor hydropower projects

  • Isolated rural communities/loads (low load factor)

Source: IPPAN, 2004


Reform process

Reform Process

  • Hydropower Policy (1992, 2001)

  • New Electricity Act - unbundling

  • Rural Energy Policy (2006)

    • Electricity supply- 12% from isolated (micro/small) hydro systems, 3% from alternate sources

  • Community Electricity Distribution Bye-law (2003)

    • Rural Electric Entities (REEs) – bulk power from NEA, CBOs/NGOs own & manage distribution

    • 80% grant from government, 20% community participation


Reform process cont d

Reform Process (cont’d)

  • Market risks addressed by PPA

  • Support for pre-investment (cost sharing)

  • Due diligence training to financial institutions

  • Public – private complementarities

    • Local financing of hydropower projects- local FIs, employee provident funds, army welfare funds

    • Public Sector – multipurpose, larger projects and transmission line


Hydropower policy 2001

Hydropower Policy - 2001

  • Drivers

    • Increase access to electricity & contribute towards energy security

    • Stimulate economic growth

    • Attract private investment

    • Facilitate power trade

  • Incentives

    • No license required for SHP up to 1 MW

    • No royalty imposed for SHP up to 1 MW

    • Rs 100 ($1.4)/kW & 1.75% energy royalty for 15 years and Rs 1000 ($14)/kW & 10% energy royalty thereafter

    • 1% royalty to village development committees

  • Policy/reform measures in the offing

    • Unbundling of national power utility (NEA)

    • Handing over of small hydro to communities and private sector by NEA


Shp policy

SHP Policy

  • Fixed buy back rate (up to 5 MW)

    • Rs 3.00 ($0.04) for wet seasons (mid Apr. – mid Nov.)

    • Rs 4.25 ($0.057) for dry seasons (mid Nov. – mid Apr.)

    • + 6% annual escalation for the first 5 years

    • + from Q90% design flow was reduced Q65%

  • For 5MW – 10 MW – at (competitive) negotiated price basis


Shp examples

SHP Examples


Adb finesse training course on renewable energy energy efficiency for poverty reduction

Improved Water Mill

Turbine Mill

Micro Hydro

  • 63% community owned

  • 37% privately owned

  • About 9.2 HH/kW

Data source- AEPC (2005)

Micro Hydro


Piluwa khola 1

Piluwa Khola1

  • Installed Capacity : 3 MW

  • Plant Load Factor : 74.4 %

  • PPA Signed on : 2000 Jan.

  • Contract energy :19.54 GWh

  • Dry months:4.89 GWh (25%)

  • Wet months:14.65 GWh (75%)

  • Production Started :2003 Sep.

  • Commercial Operation :2003 Oct

  • Company Established in March 1997

1 Source: Pandey, 2005


Piluwa khola

Piluwa Khola

  • Total cost – 4.6 m$

  • Cost/kW – 1462 $/kW

  • Consortium financing

  • Loan from local banks - 56%

  • Equity – 35%

  • Bridge gap loan – 9%


Piluwa khola1

Piluwa Khola

  • Nepal Electricity Authority pays the bill of the purchased energy every month with a time lag of 35 days.

  • The payment comes directly to the lead bank account. The bank deducts the principal and interest of the loan from the payment.

  • The company gets remaining balance if there is something left over.


Jhankre mini hydro 2

Jhankre Mini Hydro2

  • 500 kW plant with H= 180m Design Q=450l/s

  • Intake shared with Farmer Managed Irrigation Project – 13 ha (conflict in operation)

  • Owner Khimti Power developer

  • Now being handed over to community

  • Plant built to replace diesel generators during construction of Khimti Project (60MW)

  • After Completion of Khimti- for rural electrification (~5000 HH supplied)

2 Source: Karki, 2004


Jhankre power sharing agreement

Jhankre – Power Sharing Agreement

  • Temporary irrigation supply during construction

  • Hydro developer to refurbish irrigation canal

  • Employment priority to local

  • Existing irrigation water requirements for wheat, rice seedlings and rice prioritized


Thank you

Thank You


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