Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 102

有机化学 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 82 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

有机化学. 主讲教师 霍文兰 教 材 曾昭琼 主编. 第十一章 醛和酮. Chapter 11 Aldehyde and Ketone. 目的与要求. 要求学生掌握亲核加成反应的基本概念、反应类型和反应机理,醛和酮的基本化学性质和制备方法;了解影响亲核加成反应的各种因素, α,β 不饱和羰基化合物的性质等。. 教学重点和难点. 重点 1. 亲核加成反应:反应机理、立体化学等 2. 醛和酮的其它化学性质:卤仿反应、羟醛缩合反应、氧化还原反应、共轭加成反应等 难点 亲核加成反应的立体化学、羟醛缩合反应等. 本章提纲.

Download Presentation

有机化学

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript



Chapter 11

Aldehyde and Ketone


,


1.

2.



CH3CH2CHO

CH3COCH3


  • 1

  • ealone

3-

3-

3-methylbutanal

3-pentanone


2-

2-phenylpropanal

4-formylbenzoic acid

3-

3-hydroxylbutanal


3-()

1,2-

3-methylcyclopentadcanone

1,2-naphthalene dicarbaldehyde

2--1--1-

1-cyclohexyl-2-methyl-1-propanone


CH3CHO

CH3COCH3

acetaldehyde

acetone



sp2

sp22p

2p2p


  • sp2120120

  • -

121.5

117


40%

11


  • C=O1750~1680cm-1(1730cm-1)(1715cm-1)

  • CH2750 cm-1


1727 cm-1C=O2846 cm-12733 cm-1CH

3001 cm-1CH1350 cm-1CH


1686 cm-1C=O

1559~1450 cm-13060~3010 cm-1CH


  • ()10

  • 2.0~2.5


d.

a.

b.

c.

d

b

a

c

CH3CH2CH2CHO


c.

a.

b.


-



(1)

  • 7HCN-

HCN

  • HCN


  • -

-


Grignard


(2)

  • -1

  • -C



  • HCl


  • H+



  • 8NaHSO3-NaHSO3


(3)


()


  • HSchiff

Schiff


  • H-H

  • Np--



  • pH = 5


(Z)-

(E)-


(4) Wittig

  • (ylide)


-

  • -

  • --p-


(1)-

  • -

20%

80%

100%

0%


(2)


2-


(3)

  • --,-


--


-

--


---



(1)

lindlar


  • LiAlH4NaBH4


  • Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley

Oppenauer


-Wolff -

Clemmensen


(2)

Tollens

Ag2O


Fehling


  • Baeyer-Villiger


(3)

  • -Cannizzaro


  • Cannizzaro


  • (Schiff)SO2


  • HCNCN

  • HCNKC10-3~103HCN


KC = 38

KC << 1


KC = 210

KC = 530


KC = 210

KC > 104


KC > 104

KC = 1.06


-

  • pH5


Nu-


(1)

86%

14%


(2)

  • Cram

MS

S


75%

25%


(3)

LiAlH4

90%

10%

LiBH(s-Bu)3

12%

88%



  • C = CCHCrO3SeO2


bp. 92.7

bp. 49


Friedel-Crafts


  • Gattermann-Koch

  • Vilsmeier-Haack




  • Rosenmund


  • Grignard

GrignardCdCl2


  • CH2(OH)2




  • Beckmann

  • Beckmann


,-



  • H2OROHRCOOHHXNH3


  • Grignard


,-

(1)

  • ,-


(2)

  • HCNNaHSO3ROH1,4-


  • Grignard1,2-1,4-1,4-


(3) Michael

  • ,-,-


  • Robinson


(4)

  • ,-Diels-Alder


(5)

  • -

2-


  • ,-





  • 2--1,4-



  • Login