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Spring 2014 - SCE 4360 Science: Middle and Secondary School. Florida Atlantic University College of Education. Instructor: Dr. Ronald C. Persin University of Pittsburgh, B.S. Duquesne University, M. Ed. Florida Atlantic University, Ed.D.

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Spring 2014 - SCE 4360

Science: Middle and Secondary School

Florida Atlantic UniversityCollege of Education

Instructor: Dr. Ronald C. Persin

University of Pittsburgh, B.S.

Duquesne University, M. Ed.

Florida Atlantic University, Ed.D.

Phone : 561-251-1479 Email: [email protected]

Website: www.Lnk2Lrn.com

(Office Hours by Appointment)

Materials needed for each class
Materials Needed For EACH Class

  • 3-Ring Binder

  • Scientific Calculator

  • Science Instruction Text

    (Supplies: lined paper, pens, pencils)

How to Set-up Your 3-Ring Binder (Section Dividers) Syllabus Classnotes Handouts Inquiry Activities Assignments Reading Questions

Sciences of sce 4360
Sciences of SCE 4360

  • Physics

  • Chemistry

  • Earth and Space

  • Environmental

  • Biology

Behavior and properties of the elements in nature.

Relationship between humans and their surroundings.

Study of living things (plants & animals).

Study of matter and energy.

Structure of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we choose them?

Does music have an affect on plant growth?

Which kind of material is best for magnetic shielding?

Which paper towel brand is the strongest?

What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?

Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?

Do cellphone batteries charge at a uniform rate?

What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?

Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?

Which candle color burns fastest?

The Scientific Method

  • Define the problem

  • Gather information

  • State your hypothesis

  • Test your hypothesis

  • Form your conclusion

  • Publish your results

Project board
Project Board choose them?

The metric system

Created in 1795 by the French Academy of Science to unify existing systems.

Original meter was one ten-millionth of the distance from North Pole to Equator along Prime Meridian.

Early1900’s this was changed to a certain number of wavelengths

of light from Kr-86.

(605.78 nm)

The Metric System

Some metric prefixes

Prefix Symbol Power Quantity existing systems.

nano n 10-9 billionth

micro µ 10-6 millionth

milli m 10-3 thousandth

centi c 10-2 hundredth

(Examples of each? Think Metric!)

giga G 109 billion

mega M 106 million

kilo k 103 thousand

Ex: What is the average thickness of a sheet of paper?

Some Metric Prefixes

The 7 Basic MKS SI Units existing systems.

Système International (French)

1. Meter - length

2. Kilogram - mass

3. Second - time

4. Kelvin - temperature

Other units are derived (area, speed, density, force, energy, …)

Also, MKS vs CGS

5. Ampere - electric current

6. Candela - luminous intensity

7. Mole - amount of substance

Recent Major Developments in Science existing systems.

  • Landing of astronauts on the Moon, and numerous space missions.

  • Micro-circuitry, AI, high-speed computers.

  • Imaging techniques used in scientific research and medicine.

  • Mapping the Human Genome.

Science existing systems.is the study of the natural world in order to understand it.(NSES, 1996.)Branches: Biology, Chemistry, Earth & Space, Environmental, Mathematics, Physics, Social, and Computer Science.

Science Technology

Technology is the application science to the natural world according to human wants and needs. (ITEA, 2000)

Apps: Organ cultures, Synthroid, Voyager 2, Sustainability, Data mining, Nuclear power, Crowd sourcing, and Apps.

Science involves: existing systems.

  • 1. Building theories and models

  • Ex. Free-Body Diagram (Brick on Table)

  • 2. Constructing experiments

  • Ex. Force to move it?

  • 3. Interpreting data

  • Ex. How much Friction?

Scalar vs vector quantities
Scalar vs. Vector Quantities existing systems.

Given with magnitude (size or amount) only


  • Distance (10 m)

  • Speed (25 km/hr)

  • Mass (20 kg)

  • Time (3.5 s)

  • Area (15 cm²)

    (Name a few more. Can be arithmetically combined.)

Given with magnitude and direction


  • Displacement (10 m, E)

  • Velocity (25 km/hr, North)

  • Acceleration (9.8 m/s², down)

  • Force (50 N at 60⁰)

  • Torque (15 Nm at 90⁰)

    (All shown with an Arrow. Can be combined with Algebra, Geometry, Trig, and Calculus.)

Technology involves

Using processes to existing systems.alter/change the natural world, such as



Practical Problem Solving


Ex. Cartesian diver – Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Technology involves:

Whether A Field is a Science is Based on 6 Criteria existing systems.

  • Has an organized body of knowledge

  • Results are reproducible

  • Has well-developed experimental methods

  • Enables predictions, including surprises

  • Offers hypotheses open to falsification

  • Deals with natural objects

    Can you think of any fields that aren’t sciences?

Keeping Science Explanations Simple existing systems.

Occam's razor is the principle that “entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity”, ie., the simplest explanation is usually the correct one.

Attributed to William of Ockham, 14th-century British mathematician/theologian.

From Einstein "Everything should

be kept as simple as possible, but

no simpler."

Ex. – Crop Circles (made by UFO’s/aliens or people?)

The Nature of Inquiry existing systems.(NGSS, NRC, NSTA)

  • Asking questions

  • Planning investigations

  • Gathering data

  • Using scientific knowledge to make sense of data

  • Communicating results to others

    Ex. What is the average speed

    of a falling object?

Detailed ngss student inquiry practices
Detailed NGSS Student Inquiry Practices existing systems.

1. Asking Questions and Defining Problems. 2. Developing and Using Models.

3. Planning and Carrying out Investigations.4. Analyzing and Interpreting Data.

Ex. Helicopter

5. Use Math, Information/Computer Tech., Computational Thinking.6. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions.

7. Engaging in Argument from Evidence.8. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information.

Key ideas from the text

Goals of 21 existing systems.st century science teachers:

Help students see science as a way of thinking and investigating as well as an accumulated body of knowledge.

Link science with student’s lives outside school.

Science lessons built from a small number of simple concepts.

Ex. Inertia before Newton’s

Laws of Motion, an Apple

for Gravitation

Key Ideas From the Text

How to Represent Knowledge (from the text): existing systems.

Mnemonics (pronounced "ne-mon'-ics") is the art of assisting the memory by using a system of artificial aids - rhymes, rules, phrases.

Help to recall names, dates, facts, and figures.


1. To remember processes that define living things: MRS GREN.

Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach.



i before e, except after c

Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, …

The principal is our pal.

Every Good Boy Does Fine.

  • Movement; Respiration; Sensation; Growth; Reproduction; Excretion; Nutrition

  • 2. For molecules with diatomic structures: I Bring Clay For Our New House.

  • Iodine; Bromine; Chlorine; Fluorine; Oxygen; Nitrogen; Hydrogen

Proper si form

Used to write values in compact form existing systems.

1. Move the decimal to show a value in the range of 1 to 10

2. Include the metric prefix to indicate the number of decimal places moved

(more examples)

Proper SI form

325,000,000 m

= ____ Mm


Significant digits existing systems.

1. Proper expression of measured and calculated values. (NGSS Standard)

2. Results of calculations must not have more significant digits than the least precise value.

Ex. Find the area 16.2 cm

2.791 cm

A = _____

(more examples, Earth/Moon data, Speed of Light, …)

45.2 cm²

Converting measurements

1. Metric to Metric existing systems.

Powers of 10, move decimal point

Ex. 1 kg = ____ g

2. English to Metric

Use conversion factors, then

a. Proportion method Ex. 1.00 in. = 2.54 cm. 12.0 in. = ___ cm.

b. Unit cancellation method Ex. 25.0 mi/hr= ____ m/s.

Converting Measurements

  • (more examples, g/cm³ to kg/m³)

Problem Solving (5 steps) existing systems.

What is given?

Identify the unknown

Write the formula relating unknown to known

Solve the formula for the unknown

Substitute-in the known data and simplify

Ex. – The density of gold is 19.6 g/cm³. Find the mass of 10.0 cm³ of gold. Equation: D = m/V .

Scientific notation

Used for expressing very large or very small values existing systems.

Standard Form is base x 10exponent

base is from 1.0 to 9.999…

if exponent is positive the value is greater than 1

if exponent is negative the value is less than 1

Ex. - Write 1 AU, 149,000,000,000 m, in standard form.

Expanded Form - move decimal point the

number of places given by the exponent

Ex. - Write the Speed of Light,

3.0x108 m/s, in expanded form.

Scientific Notation

Graphing data
Graphing Data existing systems.

Ex. How Number of Swimmers Relate to Air Temperature

  • Rules:

  • Independent Variable – x axis. 3. Construct Line of Best Fit.

  • Dependent Variable – y axis.

Content review of sce 4360 sciences
Content Review of SCE 4360 Sciences existing systems.

Biology – study of living things, with Botany as the study of plants and Zoology as the study of animals.

5 axioms:

  • The cell is the basic unit of life.

  • Genes are the basic unit of heredity.

  • Evolution determines the synthesis and creation of new species.

  • All organisms consume and transform energy.

  • Organisms regulate their internal environment to maintain a stable condition (homeostasis).

Chemistry existing systems. – study of the behavior and properties of the elements (118) in nature.

Major Subdivisions:

Organic - study of compounds (nucleic acids, fats, fuels, sugars, proteins) containing Carbon with Hydrogen.

Inorganic - the study of those (salts, metals, minerals) with Carbon or Hydrogen.

Earth & Space existing systems. – study of the structure of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

Basic Facts:

  • Halley’s Comet appears once every 76 years.

  • The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is a hurricane-like storm detected in the early 1600′s.

  • A piece of a neutron star the size of a pin point would weigh 1 million tons.

  • There are over 100 billion galaxies in the Universe.

  • Scientists estimate that Earth is ≈ 4.5 billion years old. (ES Week)

Environmental Science existing systems. – study of the relationships between humans and their surroundings.

Basic Facts:

  • Rainforests are being cut down at the rate of 100 acres per minute.

  • On average, it costs $30 per ton to recycle trash, $50 to send it to the landfill, and $70 to incinerate it.

  • A modern glass bottle would take over 4000 years to decompose. An aluminum can could be recycled indefinitely.

  • Plastic bags and other plastics thrown into the ocean kill about 1 million sea creatures every year.

  • The amount of wood and paper we throw away each year can heat 50 million homes for 20 years. (SCIGO)

Physics existing systems. – the study of the relationship between matter and energy.

Basic Facts:

  • Founded by Isaac Newton (1642-1727) who explained 3 Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation.

2. Energy is the ability to do work, and measured in Joules..

3. The 2 types of energy are Kinetic (due to motion, K = ½ mv²), and Potential (due to position, U = mgh).

4. Forms of energy are mechanical, electricity, magnetism, light, heat, sound, chemical, and nuclear. All can be inter-converted.

5. Matter can be converted to energy, E = mc². (Games.)

Scientists of today

University of Aahaus, Denmark existing systems.

Her work involves slowing down light in an ultra-cold gas. (17 m/s)

Spent 7 months at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva.

Now teaches at Harvard.

Scientists of Today

Dr. Lene V. Hau

“After I discovered quantum physics, I've been hooked ever since. I would rather do science than go to the movies.”

Born in Hong existing systems.Kong

Graduated from Vassar, Summa Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa. Then, Ph.D. from Harvard.

At MIT, she played a key role in the discovery of the gluon, the particle that holds quarks together to form protons and neutrons.

“Reading the biography of Marie Curie inspired me so much that I decided to devote my life to science.”

Dr. Sau Lan Wu

Dr. Edward Witten, Ph.D. existing systems.

Brandeis University, B.S. in Physics and Mathematics.

Princeton, M.S., and Ph.D. in Physics.

Then to Harvard for teaching and research.

Appointed professor of Physics at Princeton.

Now, Professor in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.

Leading proponent of String Theory.

(He could be our modern day Einstein.)

“If you are a researcher, you are trying to figure out what the question is as well as what the answer is.”

First existing systems.tenured woman in physics at Princeton, Harvard and now at MIT.

Most cited theoretical physicist in the world in the last five years.

Research in high energy physics is primarily related to finding the smallest particles of matter.

Dr. Lisa Randall

“I liked math because all the problems had answers. Everything else seemed very subjective. Early on, I realized I was thinking about the world a little differently than my friends.”

In a Bronx, N.Y., high school where the dropout rate was 60 percent, a guidance counselor declined to give Stephon Alexander an application to an Ivy League university.

"You won't get in," Alexander recalls the counselor saying. But Alexander proved the counselor wrong.

After a BS at Haverford and a Ph.D. in Physics from Brown University, the counselor appears to have gotten it wrong. After his Ph.D., Alexander was at London's Imperial College.

Currently he is a member of the SLAC high energy physics group and Stanford's ITP (Institute for Theoretical Physics).

Stephon Alexander

Dr hakeem oluseyi astrophysicist

Member of SuperNova/Acceleration Prove (SNAP) mission at Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

Professor at the University of Alabama, continuing to collaborate with the SNAP project.

Self-described “regular guy” from Mississippi, doesn’t remember exactly how he first became interested in science, but says, “I’ve always thought scientists were supercool.”

Dr. Hakeem Oluseyi, Astrophysicist

Dr. Valerie Bennett Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

B.S. Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics - Vanderbilt University.

M.S. Mechanical Engineering - Georgia Tech.

Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering - Georgia Tech.

Professor of Physics at Morehouse College.


- Analyzing Fatigue Properties of Nanostructures.- Computational Microstructional Analysis of Fatigue.

Most Recent Publication:

Bennett, V.P. and McDowell, D.L., Micromechanics of Microstructurally Small Surface Cracks in Polycrystals, Proc. ICF 10, Honolulu, HI.

  • Dr. Ellen Ochoa Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

  • Selected by NASA and became the first Hispanic female astronaut, logging more than 480 hours in space.

  • Doctoral student at Stanford, and later as a researcher at Sandia National Laboratories and NASA Ames Research Center.

  • She is a co-inventor with a patent for an optical object recognition method.

  • Ellen's dream is to help build a new space station, which she says is "critical… to human exploration in space, a transportation mode to new frontiers."

"Only you put limitations on yourself - don't be afraid to reach for the stars."

Came to U.S. in 1992 from the Dominican. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

He earned a B.S and an M.S. from Hofstra. Then a doctorate from NYU. Member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

Responsible for the design and operation of the Collider-Accelerator Dept at Brookhaven.

These include the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collier (RHIC), and cutting-edge R&D accelerators, such as the Energy Recovery Linac.

Accelerator RF systems are used to control beam energy, stabilize particle motion, and control the distribution or spread in energies among particles.

Dr. Freddy Severino

Dr. Brian Greene, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

Harvard, 1984, B.S., Physics & Math

Oxford University, 1986, Ph.D., Rhodes Scholar.

Physics faculty of Cornell, 1990.

1996, joined Columbia University as professor of physics and of mathematics.

Founder and director of Columbia’s Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics, a research center seeking string theory’s implications for theories of cosmology.

Your students could become our next Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

“Scientists of Today”!