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“Education policy and Equal Education opportunities’ Reforms in Secondary Education and their effect on ‘children in risk’ in North Caucasus. Dr. Irina Molodikova Central European University March 18 - 21, 2010 Tirana. The Geographic location of North Caucasus republics (NCR).

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The Geographic location of North Caucasus republics (NCR)

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The geographic location of north caucasus republics ncr

“Education policy and Equal Education opportunities’ Reforms in Secondary Education and their effect on ‘children in risk’ in North Caucasus. Dr. Irina Molodikova Central European UniversityMarch 18 - 21, 2010Tirana


The geographic location of north caucasus republics ncr

The Geographic location of North Caucasus republics (NCR)


Ncr region is the place where every child can be in potential risk

NCR region is the place, where every child can be in potential risk


N ossetia beslan school 1 11 september 2004 from 1100 hostages were killed 334 mainly children

N. Ossetia Beslan school 1-11 September 2004: from 1100 hostages were killed 334 (mainly children).


Socio economic context of education development

Socio-economic context of education development:

  • Multiethnic of region (70 ethnic groups);

  • History of tensions and territorial disputes;

  • Lowest education indicators and socio-economic characteristics in Russia;

  • Highest Natural increase in Russia;

  • Highest level of children and unemployment;

  • Inflow of refugees and Internally displaced people;

  • 3 groups of republics according to situation:

    1. N.Ossetia (Pr.r.), Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia;

    2. Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachaevo-Cherkessia;

    3. Adyghea


Problem in education in the context of ethnic relation in region

Problem in Education in the context of ethnic relation in region

  • Nation building led to rise of nationalism and experiments in school education (experiments with language and curricular);

  • Incomparable goals of local elite with Federal Center in competition for control led to military conflicts;

  • Military conflicts and many children were not able to attend schools for long time;

  • Different demographic patterns and processes (especially forced migration) changed the ethnic composition and sex composition in republics;

  • Press out some ethnic groups from one region to another created conflict situations;

  • Mass exodus of Russian speaking population created gaps in school education process


The geographic location of north caucasus republics ncr

In 90s during different ethnic conflicts about 500 000 people were forcedly removed in, within and out of N. Caucasus republics


The geographic location of north caucasus republics ncr

Methodology:

  • Assessment of problems with children and

    the main groups in risk children;

  • About 140 teachers and 40 experts were

    questioned in focus groups and in-depth

    interviews in North Caucasus republics in 2007 regarding equal access to schooling;

  • Monitoring of project and in depth interview with teachers;

  • Children essays – 350;

  • Survey of 350 graduated children;


Main problems

Main problems:

As in other post – Soviet transition regions: lack of equipped facilities, lack of qualified teachers, deterioration of school infrastructure;

Specific problems:

  • post conflict trauma;

  • deterioration of quality of Russian – language instructions and teachers qualification;

  • lack of pre-school education;

  • widespread corruption in schools;

  • Influence of right wing religious education ;

  • gender issue in education;


Main groups of children at risk according to teachers opinion

Main groups of children at risk (according to teachers opinion) :

  • Problem families – from 15% in all (max. 40% Dagestan);

  • Low income families – from 15% in all (max. 50% Kab.-Balkar.);

  • Bad knowledge of Russian – 5 republics (max. 50% Kab.-Balkar.);

  • Disable or with health problems – from 5 % in all (max. 20% N. Ossetia);

  • Orphans and adopted - 5 republics (max. 20% N. Ossetia);

  • Families with many kids – 3 republics (max. 20% Ingush.)

  • Internally displaced & refugees- 2 republics (max. 30% Ingus.)

  • Dropped out - only Chechnya 5-10%;

  • Homeless – only Kabardino-Balkaria -15%

  • Deviant children – only in N. Ossetia and Ingushetia


Impact of conflicts on education

Impact of conflicts on education

  • Schools destroyed;

  • Children dropped out from education because of wars (about 100 000 children):

  • In some villages Children to reach school from one part of village to another (to Ingush school) use special transport because of security reasons;

  • 19 455 kids need rehabilitation – post war syndrome;

  • Problems of I and II wars between Georgia -S. Ossetia (in N. Ossetia, in refugees families from Georgian regions children can’t speak neither Ossetian or Russian);


Main reforms in russian education

Main reforms in Russian education:

  • (1) Introduction and development of private secondary and high education and commercialization of the all education system;

  • (2). Development of an ethnic component in the school education of the republics;

  • (3) Introduction of a Unified State Exam (USE) system from 2009 (edinii gosudarstvenii ekzamen - EGE);

  • (4). Renaissance of religion (from 1997 Law ‘On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations’ and 2009 - Introduction of religious education in schools curricula –Orthodoxy, Buddhism, Judaism, or Islam);


Commercialization of education

Commercialization of education

  • Reduced the number of free education increased the competition for these places

  • Increased number of fee-paying students (the choice dictated by money);

  • Increase of informal payments in schools;

  • Stratification of society on income and on ethnicity influence school environment (example of N.& S. Ossetia);


Ethnic component language issue

Ethnic component & Language issue

  • Traditional absence of pre-school education ( at home they speak only in ethnic language);

  • Russian teachers run away from ethnic regions and local teachers do not speak well Russian;

  • Regional education from local budget decline (Chechen case);

  • National language education – what are the limits?

  • Unified State exam –test on Russian language?


Unified state exam use new opportunity or widespread corruption

Unified State Exam (USE)–new opportunity or widespread corruption?

  • USE-idea of equal opportunities for all children;

    Positive discrimination:

  • Disable children;

  • Orphans;

  • Winner of Olympiads;

    Corruption again:

    Dagestan has highest % of score, Moscow and St. Petersburg are among the worst;

    Price for USE: from 1300 (N. Caucasus) to 4000 EURO (Moscow);


Religious education reduced girls access to education

Religious education: reduced girls access to education

  • Involvement of Islam in civil education;

  • Rise in number of religious schools without gradual development of mullah education;

  • Rise of fundamentalism and recruitment of youth ( dropped out from civil education);

  • Rise of influences of Islam values in civil life and everyday customs;

  • Unofficial revival of Sheria law;

  • Replacement of civil activities (sport, dances and so on) by religious education;


Muslim customs gender problems

Muslim Customs & Gender problems

  • Turn from “emancipation” of women to private life (hijab, dresses, home keeping) ;

  • Widespread girls forced marriages:

    “in rural areas only one or two girls now graduate school…they help at home or get married ”; “(teacher)

  • Interruption of education by the abduction of girls for marriages;

  • Development of polygamy (demographic solution of sex disproportion because of wars);

  • Problems with sport activities of girls “from the age of puberty girls do not attend physical education class”;


Conclusion

Conclusion:

  • Sources of Children in risk in NCR – ethnic Conflict and Center – regional governments conflicts that influence education process;

  • The low socio-economic development of NCR gives less chances to children at Risk;

  • Education reforms in NCR do not work because of corruption;

  • Widespread corruption in education leads to youth frustration and their turn to radical Islam;

  • Children dropped out of education have no opportunity to be involved in normal life and the only possibility for them to go to militants or other informal activities;

  • Development of religious education reduced girls opportunity to have access to quality education;


The geographic location of north caucasus republics ncr

Thank you!


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