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Process and environmental engineering research group

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

The application of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models to improve the prediction of fugitive dust emission and dispersion within and from large open pit mining operationsPresentation delivered to12th US/North American Mine Ventilation SymposiumReno, Nevada9th -11th June 2008Ian LOWNDES, Stephen SILVESTER, Sam KINGMANand David HARGREAVESFaculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK


Fugitive dust emissions industrial drivers

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Fugitive Dust EmissionsIndustrial Drivers

  • Health and Safety

    • Personnel & Operations

    • Environment & Community

  • Divided into near and far field effects respectively

  • Near Field

    • Personnel exposure

    • In pit retention - poor air exchange - deep pits

    • Site visibility

    • Management of resources (water, efficient use for mitigation)

    • Life, asset and production losses

  • Far field

    • Regulatory compliance – need to demonstrate compliance

    • Nuisance dust

    • Health hazards

    • Public perception


Introduction industrial drivers

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Introduction - Industrial Drivers

  • Fugitive dust dispersion from and within open-pit mineral extraction sites are influenced by a number of complex factors –

    • Meteorological

      • Diurnal and seasonal wind variation

      • Thermal stability effects

    • Haul Road traffic movements

      • Frequency

      • Road conditions

      • Changing pit terrain

    • Processing

      • Crushing/loading/stockpiling

    • Surrounding topography

Requires the development of an effective and well defined environmental management system


Introduction a case study quarry extraction site

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Introduction- A Case Study Quarry Extraction Site

  • A limestone extraction quarry – current reserves of 260 million tonnes – (extensive deposits of regular bedded consistent limestone)

  • Chemical stone – 3M tpa, construction stone - 3M tpa

  • Operates a typical blast and haul extraction method

  • Operates in close proximity to densely populated residential areas and a national park

Tunstead Quarry

  • Nottingham

*


Introduction monitoring modelling strategy

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

IntroductionMonitoring & Modelling Strategy

  • Old Moor Quarry site (highlighted) continuously monitored for peripheral dust deposition over a three year period

  • Site dimensions – 1100m x 800m x 110 m deep (5 benches).

  • Deposition on perimeter recorded by gravitational settling gauges (BS dust deposition frisbees) and continual real time dust monitors

    • Later modified to investigate attenuation of dust deposition

  • Meteorological data recorded via an on site weather station, operations data recorded (blasting location/tonnage, haul road usage)

  • Samples collated on a monthly cycle – analysed for total mass (gravimetric) deposition, size distribution & mineralogy (SEM)


In pit dust retention current status regarding the modelling of dust emissions from open pits

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-Pit Dust Retention - Current status regarding the modelling of dust emissions from open pits

  • A large number of regulatory approved models are in use:

    • UK ADMS, TAPM CSIRO,AUSPLUME, SCREEN3, CALPUFF, ISC3….

    • Terrain effects are simplified or emissions from open pits modified using reduction factors – e.g.

      • Shearer (1984) – a uniform reduction of 1/3

      • Cole & Fabrick (1984) suggested two reduction factor functions, one based on pit depth (H), the second based upon wind velocity at the top of the pit – both approximate to 1/3 –1/2 of in pit emissions

      • More recently the US EPA (TRC Consultants 1995) evaluated several models based upon more advanced finite element methods, though no field validation was performed.

Reference: Significant Dust Dispersion Models for Mining Operations NIOSH DHHS September 2005


In pit dust retention current status regarding the modelling of dust emissions from open pits1

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-Pit Dust Retention - Current status regarding the modelling of dust emissions from open pits

  • Operation specific models suggested by Wei et al (1999) to take into account face impaction/reflection during blasting.

  • ISC3 Model modified by Reed (2003) to take into account dynamic effects of haul traffic.

  • EPA studies (1995) confirmed over prediction of ISC3 model using EPA AP 42 emissions factors for surface mining operations, source of error – emission rate or terrain effects were not identified.

* Significant Dust Dispersion Models for Mining Operations NIOSH DHHS September 2005


In pit dust retention current status regarding the modelling of dust emissions from open pits2

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-Pit Dust Retention - Current status regarding the modelling of dust emissions from open pits

  • CONCLUSIONS

  • Traditional Gaussian plume dispersion model capabilities vary widely, many studies are inconclusive, field/scale validation is limited, in pit dispersion studies under-represented.

  • Need to better define near field emission and dispersion characteristics and the influence of both in-pit meteorology and topography on the deposition, removal and dispersion of fugitive dust within pit.

  • Clarification and best practice guidelines to be established for in/out pit environmental impact assessment and health and safety management(inc visibility assessments)


Process and environmental engineering research group

In-Pit Dust Retention- The influence of in-pit topography and meteorology

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Micro climate flow reversals that may influence dust dispersion, deposition and retention


In pit dust retention the influence of in pit topography and meteorology

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-Pit Dust Retention- The influence of in-pit topography and meteorology

Why is the in-pit topography and meteorology so important?

A significant proportion of potential in-pit fugitive dust emissions may be retained in pit through: the impaction and deposition of the coarse fraction, and the retention of the fine fraction due to recirculation and stagnation flows created by the combination of mechanical shear flows created by the ABL and thermal buoyancy.

Any increase of in-pit dust residence time creates potential visibility and exposure health and safety issues in- pit.


Cfd case study b5 bench blast modelling

B5 Rubble Pile

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CFD Case StudyB5 bench blast modelling

  • A bench blast was modelled as a velocity pulse, extracted from video of single event

  • Oncoming wind profile (normal to blast face)

  • Initially modelled as steady prior to blast event

  • DPM emission defined on rubble pile over pulse duration

  • Measured particles assumed spherical

    • 2.5µm - 0.05

    • 10µm - 0.45

    • 30µm - 0.3

    • 75µm - 0.2

Inlet of ABL

Aspect Ratio Distribution – Taken from gauge results


Cfd study improved bench blast fugitive dust generation and dispersion models

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

CFD Study- Improved bench blast fugitive dust generation and dispersion models

  • B5 Bench blast modelled as a velocity pulse, extracted from video of single event


Advanced work the influence of the abl and in pit topography on the in pit microclimate

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Advanced Work – The influence of the ABL and in pit topography on the in pit microclimate

The detail of the in pit and surrounding terrain extracted from detailed digital survey mappings of the site


Advanced work 8 wind directions 160 in pit emissions generic characteristics

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work – 8 Wind Directions – 160 In Pit Emissions – Generic Characteristics

Micro climate flow reversals that may influence dust dispersion, deposition and retention


Advanced work the influence of the abl and in pit topography on the in pit microclimate1

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work – The influence of the ABL and in pit topography on the in pit microclimate

Gradual increase in resolution (from 200m post spacing to 2m post spacing) of quarry topography demonstrating development of in pit microclimate – contours of velocity magnitude


Advanced work 8 wind directions 5 in pit emission locations generic characteristics

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work – 8 Wind Directions – 5 In Pit Emission Locations – Generic Characteristics

Regions of

air flow

reversal

Wind direction

Dust emission

source

Micro climate flow reversals that may influence dust dispersion, deposition and retention


Advanced work the influence of in pit topography

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work – The influence of in pit topography

Gradual increase in resolution (from 200m post spacing to 2m post spacing) of quarry topography demonstrating development of in pit microclimate – Contours of in pit emission ground concentration


In pit dust emission dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-pit dust emission, dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies

  • 5 simulated bench blast dust emissions located at different elevations and locations within the quarry

  • 8 different wind directions

  • Neutral stability conditions


In pit dust emission dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies1

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-pit dust emission, dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies

Refinement of

detail of bench

model meshes


Process and environmental engineering research group

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work: Neutral Stability conditions; 8 principal Wind Directions;Bench blast simulated dust emissions

N

Dust dispersion and retention due to topography, wind direction and stability conditions


Process and environmental engineering research group

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work: Neutral Stability conditions; 8 principal Wind Directions;Source of dust emissions at 5 different elevations and locations within quarry

Source 2: Third level of quarry

Source 3: Second level of quarry

Source 4: First level of quarry

Source 5: Second level of quarry


In pit dust emission dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies2

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

In-pit dust emission, dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies

  • 5 simulated bench blast dust emissions located at different elevations and locations within the quarry

  • 8 different wind directions

  • Neutral stability conditions


Process and environmental engineering research group

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work: Neutral Stability conditions; 8 principal Wind Directions;Source of dust emissions at 5 different elevations and locations within quarry


Process and environmental engineering research group

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work: Neutral Stability conditions; 8 principal Wind Directions;Source of dust emissions at 4 different elevations and locations within quarry


Process and environmental engineering research group

Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

Advanced Work: Neutral Stability conditions; 8 principal Wind Directions;Source of dust emissions at 5 different elevations and locations within quarry

The maximum in pit weighted average deposition is around 0.6 and the minimum is around 0.3.

The calculated grand total weighted average in pit dust

deposition for all sources and wind directions is 50%


Future model studies the adoption of a multi scale modelling approach

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Future Model Studies- the adoption of a multi-scale modelling approach


Future model studies the adoption of a multi scale modelling approach1

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Future Model Studies- the adoption of a multi-scale modelling approach

  • Site wind measurement

    • Validating microclimate models

  • Dust monitoring

    • Validating dispersion models

  • Simulation

    Validation


    The application of the combined cfd and gaussian plume multi scale predictive modelling approach

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    The application of the combined CFD and Gaussian plume multi-scale predictive modelling approach

    The application of the combined CFD and Gaussian plume multi scale fugitive dust modelling approach


    Conclusions recommendations

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    Conclusions & Recommendations

    • The enhanced capabilities of CFD in respect of ground source characterisation using equivalent emissions to a plume based model shows a substantial reduction in out of pit emission and deposition for a single event model at a high level within a typical UK surface extraction site

    • Limited capabilities of k-ε turbulence models may adversely bias out of pit prediction due to divergence from the ABL – modified wall functions/methods for these purposes are under development at Nottingham

    • The combined use of CFD for near source and long range Gaussian plume models for out of pit may prove to be a successful intermediate measure, following the execution of a greater number of validation case studies


    Conclusions recommendations1

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    Conclusions & Recommendations


    Process and environmental engineering research group

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    The End………….


    Benefits and deliverables

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    Benefits and Deliverables

    • Generation of improved knowledge of the factors that influence in-pit generation, dispersion and retention.

    • Development of improved predictive models to be incorporated within an Environmental Dust Management System (EDMS)

    • Online environmental impact and hazard assessment tool to be used for:

    • - Historical analyses (impact of prior events)

      • - Incident investigation

      • - Environmental complaint rebuttal/defence

      • - Improved IPPC application fugitive dust modelling studies

    • - Predictive analysis (impact of planned events/the impact of development sequences)

      • - Confirmation of compliance with site/off site environmental and health and safety regulations

      • - Early warning of potential problems

      • - Flagging of high risk scenarios


    Cfd study improved haul truck fugitive dust generation and dispersion model

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    CFD Study- Improved haul truck fugitive dust generation and dispersion model

    • Measured cross wind applied

    • Dust concentration profiles taken at coincident roadside distances to sampling points

    • Long term objective is to produce generic emission profiles under a range of conditions to construct multi-scale emission and dispersion models


    Cfd study improved haul truck fugitive dust generation and dispersion model1

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    CFD Study- Improved haul truck fugitive dust generation and dispersion model


    In pit dust retention the influence of in pit topography and meteorology1

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    In-Pit Dust Retention- The influence of in-pit topography and meteorology

    Example: Dispersion and retention of haul truck generated dust


    Development of an environmental management system ems

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    Development of an Environmental Management System (EMS)

    • The development of an effective EMS for the control of fugitive dust emissions is dependent upon a continuous monitoring and interpretation of the relevant atmospheric, environmental and mine operational data, including:

    • Global meteorological data – provided by on site weather stations (continuous real time data feed and historical records)

    • In-pit meteorological data in the vicinity of extraction sites, loading operations, haul roads, primary crushing and stockpiling operations (continuous real time data feed and historical records)

    • Planned truck schedule and actual truck haul road movements (continuous real time data feed)


    Development of an environmental management system ems1

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    Development of an Environmental Management System (EMS)

    • Road haulage surface conditions (truck/road mounted sensors)

    • Fugitive dust emission data (truck/road mounted sensors; loading operations)

    • Assessment of truck driver visibility on haul roads

    • Assessment of the required frequency and efficacy of road wetting operations


    Future model studies the adoption of a multi scale modelling approach2

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    Future Model Studies- the adoption of a multi-scale modelling approach

    • Near source can account for dynamic source effects (wake mixing, blast turbulence)

    • Fully dispersed emission from source passed as a flux to pit wide CFD model

    • Flux from pit passed to far field Gaussian plume model

    Near & Far Wake Mixing

    Limit of Source Influence


    In pit dust emission dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies3

    Process and Environmental Engineering Research Group

    In-pit dust emission, dispersion deposition and retention modelling studies

    • 5 simulated bench blast dust emissions located at different elevations and locations within the quarry

    • 8 different wind directions

    • Neutral stability conditions


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