# Map Projections and the RING OF FIRE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Map Projections and the RING OF FIRE. What is a projection?. It is difficult to translate a spherical GLOBE onto a flat MAP. Over the years, cartographers (map-makers) have found a few different ways to do it.

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Map Projections and the RING OF FIRE

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## Map Projections and the RING OF FIRE

### What is a projection?

• It is difficult to translate a spherical GLOBE onto a flat MAP. Over the years, cartographers (map-makers) have found a few different ways to do it.

• We call these different ways of turning a globe into a map PROJECTIONS because often they are done by using a light to project the globe onto a flat surface.

### Cartography

• Cartography is the science and art of graphically representing a defined geographical area by means of a map.

• Cartography is the art of translating the spherical globe onto a flat map so there is the least amount of distortion

• All projections distort certain areas of the map. This has been a contentious issue for centuries. Which areas should be the biggest? Which part of the globe should be in the center? At the top?

• However, many maps are created to solve practical problems

### Mercator Projection

• Pros: The ONLY projection in which a line drawn in a certain direction on the map is really that way on the Earth’s surface.

• Cons: The size of land near the poles is MUCH bigger than it really is (Greenland is as big as Africa).

### Equal Area Projection

• Excellent with size/shape

• Bad w/ direction & distance

• Ugly! Splits in map = “interruptions”

Robinson Projection

• Compromise b/t size and shape

• More accurate overall representation

• Golden map for most geographers

### Dymaxion Projection

• Made by Buckminster Fuller, one of my heroes. Doesn’t distort any part of the globe. Shows all the continents as one “island of all humanity” surround by one global ocean.

### Latitude and Longitude

Latitude (FLATitude)

• Runs East-West.

• Lines never meet.

• Lines of latitude are always the same distance apart from each other

• Can be found with a compass. The compass was invented by the Chinese in the 1300’s

Longitude

• Runs North-South.

• All lines meat at North and South poles.

• Lines of longitude are farthest apart at the equator, and closer together near the poles.

• Took explorers and sea captains hundreds of years to figure out how to find latitude. An accurate clock is needed. Or, a sextant can be used (very difficult)

### Using Latitude and Longitude

• For LONGITUDE, the prime meridian is 0 and passes through Greenwich, England.

• Going East or West, lines of Longitude increase until 180 degrees which is the International Date Line.

• For LATITUDE, the equator is 0 and is exactly halfway between the North and South poles.

• Going North or South, lines of Latitude increase to 90 degrees which is the pole.

A point on the earth is always listed Latitude, Longitude. For example: Denver, CO is 39 degrees N, 104 degrees W

### Reading p. G7 – G11

• Answer questions on activity sheet

### Exit Slip

• 1: Name one state in the USA are that is most likely to have a volcanic eruption.

• 2: What is an advantage and a disadvantage to the Mercator projection?