Physiology of auditory system
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PHYSIOLOGY OF AUDITORY SYSTEM. Dr. Sudeep k.c. AUDITORY SYSTEM. ORGAN OF CORTI: -It is a sense organ of hearing situated in a basilar membrane. COMPONENTS OF ORGAN OF CORTI: Tunnel of corti- Formed by inner and outer rods, contains a fluid cortilymph.

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PHYSIOLOGY OF AUDITORY SYSTEM

Dr. Sudeepk.c.


AUDITORY SYSTEM

  • ORGAN OF CORTI:

    -It is a sense organ of hearing situated in a basilar membrane.

    COMPONENTS OF ORGAN OF CORTI:

  • Tunnel of corti- Formed by inner and outer rods, contains a fluid cortilymph.

  • Hair Cells-Receptors cells of hearing and transduce sound energy into electrical energy.

    Inner hair cells:-impt. in transmission of auditory impulse.

    Outer hair cells:-impt. in modulating the function of inner hair cells.


  • Supporting cells:-Situated between the outer hair cells and important for support.

  • Tectorial Membrane:-It overlies the organ of corti. It produces a stimulus to hair cells.


ORGAN OF CORTI


AUDITORY NEURAL PATHWAYS

  • The receptors of hearing are linked by a chain of neurons with the receiving centers for hearing in the temporal lobes of a cerebral cortex.

  • The main nuclei in the ascending auditory pathways are:

  • Superior olivary complex.

  • Nucleus of lateral laminiscus.

  • Inferior colliculus.

  • Medial geniculate body.

  • Auditory Cortex.(Area 41)

    FIGURE


AUDITORY PATHWAYS


Mechanism of Hearing

Broadly divided into:

  • Mechanical conduction of sound(Conductive apparatus).

  • Transduction of mechanical energy to electrical impulse (Sensory system of Cochlea).

  • Conduction of electrical impulse to the brain(Neural pathways).


VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

  • Divided into:

  • Peripheral Vestibular System:-

    -Made up of membranous Labyrinth and Vestibular nerve.

    -Peripheral receptors- CRISTAE –Semicircular duct. -MACULA- Utricle and Saccule

  • Central Vestibular System:-

    -Made up of Nuclei and Fibers tract in CNS.

    -It integrates the vestibular impulses with other systems to maintain body balance.


  • Crista (cupula and ampullary crest) When movement of the endolymph causes cupula to bend, sensory hair cells generate nerve impulses which the brain perceives as angular acceleration.


Semicircular Canals

  • They responds to angular acceleration and deceleration.

  • Three canals lies at right angle to each others so that any change in position of head can be detected.

  • Stimulation of this canals produce Nystagmus


Utricle and Saccule

  • Collectively called as OTOLITH ORGAN.

  • Stimulated by linear acceleration and deceleration and gravitational pull during the head tilts.


Maintenance of Body Equilibrium

  • Maintain by Vestibular , Visual and Somato-sensory components.

  • If one of these components is disturbed for longer period Vertigo and Ataxia will develop.


VERTIGO AND DIZZINESS

  • Disorientation in space causes vertigo or dizziness which arises due to disorder of Vestibular, Visual and Somato-sensory system.


Motion Sickness

  • Characterized by Nausea ,Vomiting , Pallor and Sweating during travel in sea, Bus, or car.

  • Arise from the mismatch of information reaching the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum from the visual, labyrinthine and somato-sensory system.


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