Mlab 2401 clinical chemistry keri brophy martinez
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MLAB 2401: Clinical Chemistry Keri Brophy-Martinez. Parathyroid gland. Anatomy. The parathyroid glands are four or more small glands located on the posterior surface (back side) of the thyroid gland. Function & Regulation.

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Mlab 2401 clinical chemistry keri brophy martinez

MLAB 2401: Clinical ChemistryKeri Brophy-Martinez

Parathyroid gland


Anatomy
Anatomy

  • The parathyroid glands are four or more small glands located on the posterior surface (back side) of the thyroid gland.


Function regulation
Function & Regulation

  • Maintain the body’s calcium level for proper functioning of nervous and muscular systems

  • In situations of low blood calcium, the parathyroid senses this and releases PTH hormone that work to increase calcium levels

High blood Ca+ level

Low blood Ca+ level

Breakdown of bone matrix decreases

Breakdown of bone matrix increases

Normal blood Ca+ Level


Parathyroid hormone pth
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

  • Sole hormone secreted by parathyroid, from the chief cells

  • Also known as parathyrin


PTH

  • Action

    • Raise serum concentration of calcium

    • How?

      • Promotes reabsorption of calcium from bone

      • Increases kidney tubule reabsorption of calcium by a process where phosphate and bicarbonate is excreted

      • Activates vitamin D, assists in absorption in the gut


Calcitonin
Calcitonin

  • Produced by the thyroid

  • Action

    • Increase bone formation

    • Inhibit bone breakdown

    • Lowers blood calcium levels

    • Antagonistic to PTH


Disorders
Disorders

  • Hyperparathyroidism

    • Causes

      • Benign adenoma

      • Hyperplasia of tissue in response to chronic calcium loss

      • Secretion of PTH from malignant non-endocrine tumor


Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism

  • Results

    • Increased PTH

    • Increased urine and serum calcium

    • Decreased serum phosphorous

    • Increased urine phosphorous

    • Kidney problems (stones)

    • Bone problems (demineralization)


Hypoparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism

  • Causes

    • Primary

      • Idiopathic

    • Secondary

      • Thyroid/ parathyroid surgery

      • Autoimmune diseases

  • Results

    • Decrease PTH

    • Decreased serum calcium

    • Increased serum phosphorous


References
References

Bishop, M., Fody, E., & Schoeff, l. (2010). Clinical Chemistry: Techniques, principles, Correlations. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Head-and-Neck-Cancer-Center/Treatment/Parathyroidectomy.aspx

http://www.teachpe.com/gcse_anatomy/bones.php

Sunheimer, R., & Graves, L. (2010). Clinical Laboratory Chemistry. Upper Saddle River: Pearson .


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