Content anycasting applications for future internet
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Content Anycasting Applications for Future Internet. IAENG 2011 conference, ICCSA, Hong Kong Kyushu University Othman Othman M.M. Koji Okamura. Outline:. Goal . Anycast vs. Multicast. OpenFlow Overview. Current Technologies. Limitations of Current Technologies. Anycast Scenario

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Content anycasting applications for future internet

Content Anycasting Applications for Future Internet

IAENG 2011 conference, ICCSA, Hong Kong

Kyushu University

Othman Othman M.M.

Koji Okamura.


Outline

Outline:

  • Goal .

  • Anycast vs. Multicast.

  • OpenFlow Overview.

  • Current Technologies.

  • Limitations of Current Technologies.

  • Anycast Scenario

  • BitTorrent (P2P) Scenario.

  • Advantages of Combining Technologies.

  • How to Combine Technologies.

  • Applications.

    • Popular Large File Distribution.

    • P2P construction.

  • Conclusion.

  • Q&A.


1 goal

1-Goal:

  • Nowadays many Future Internet researches, technologies going.

  • OpenFlow is one of candidate Future Internet technologies.

    • to create Circuit based like systems.

      • To support mobility, computing centers ……

  • Important to show new ways to use OpenFlow to provide new services or improve current ones.

    • That make use of OpenFlow capabilities other than circuit like.

    • To have contents with high availability.


2 anycast vs multicast

2-Anycast vs. Multicast:

  • Multicast:

    • Deliver multiple copies of packetsto multiple hosts.

  • Anycast:

    • Deliver original packetto one out a groupof hosts.

    • Deliver to nearest node depending on routing measures.

Multicast

Anycast


3 openflow overview

3- OpenFlow Overview:

  • Separates routing decision making (in controller) and the forwarding (in the switch or router).

  • Matching in the switch or router is done according to Layer 2, 3 and VLAN headers.

Figure 1: OpenFlow switch

(ref: Nick McKeown et al, “OpenFlow: enabling innovation

in campus networks”)


4 current technologies

4-Current Technologies:

  • Peer to Peer:

    • Depends on user clients to provide service.

    • Implements an application layer overlaynetwork.

  • Anycast:

    • Multiple nodes with the same address (Sa).

    • Packet sent to (Sa) will be delivered to the node with nearest location.

Sa

Sa

Sa

Fig 1. Anycast

Fig 2. BitTorrent

Source :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Torrentcomp_small.gif


5 limitations of current technologies

5-Limitations of Current Technologies:

  • Peer to Peer:

    • Overhead because of overlay nature, protocol, peer discovery, and looking up in index.

  • Anycast:

    • All of the content servers must have identical contents.

    • Lacks the flexibility, and not dynamic.

10.10.10.1

192.168.0.1

Cont 1

Cont 1

Cont 2

Cont 2

Router 1

Cont 3

Cont 3

Router 2

Fig 2. BitTorrent

Source : http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bittorrent2.htm

Cont n

Cont n

10.10.10.1

Router 3

Router 4

192.168.0.2

Destination Next-Hop Distance

192.168.0.0 127.0.0.1 0

10.0.0.1 192.168.0.1 1

10.0.0.1 192.168.0.2 2


6 anycast scenario

6-Anycast Scenario:

10.10.10.1

10.10.10.1

Client will send packet to 10.10.10..1

10.10.10.1

Cont 1

Cont 1

Cont 1

Cont 2

Cont 2

Cont 2

Network will choose end node based on routing measures

Cont 3

Cont 3

Cont 3

10.10.10.1

Cont n

Cont n

Cont n


7 bittorrent p2p scenario

7-BitTorrent (P2P) Scenario:

Tracker

100%

Seeder

70%

30%

100%

Seeder

0%


8 advantages of combining technologies 1 3

8-Advantages of Combining Technologies 1/3:

  • Anycast.

  • Content Centric Networks.

  • Peer to Peer.

  • Combination of those technologies:

    • Users contributing in service: to improve the availability, and improves the overall use of bandwidth in whole network.

User contribution

In Content Anycasting

Regular Client/Server


8 advantages of combining technologies 2 3

8-Advantages of Combining Technologies 2/3:

  • Anycast.

  • Content Centric Networks.

  • Peer to Peer.

  • Combination of those technologies:

    • Choosing destination by network: to remove the burden of finding destination and thus a faster response.

Tracker

?

Content

Server

OpenFlow Router

Choosing Destination By Network

In Content Anycasting

Tracker Role in BitTorrent


8 advantages of combining technologies 3 3

8-Advantages of Combining Technologies 3/3 :

  • Anycast.

  • Content Centric Networks.

  • Peer to Peer.

  • Combination of those technologies:

    • Content ID: to have more flexibility down to the level of contents rather than the node level.

  • Decision based on:

  • IP address.

  • sometimes port#

  • Decision based on:

  • IP address.

  • Content ID.

Content

Server

Content

Server

OpenFlow Router

Using Content ID

In Content Anycasting

Regular


9 how to combine technologies

9-How to Combine Technologies:

  • Content anycasting does its rule by using:

    • OpenFlow for the process of choosing the destination, along with the aid of the content server.

    • A new procedure for requesting content is introduced to enable the clients to get the contents.

Threshold reached

Redirection Req.

AnycastManager

Content Server

Content ID = X, in URL

Redirection

To: Au

Cont id=X

Su

Get Content ID form URL

To: Su

Cont id=X

Client A

OpenFlow Router

Client B

Au

Bu

13


9 how to combine technologies1

9-How to Combine Technologies:

  • The new procedure for getting the content:

    • Phase 1: getting the content ID. (e.g.: from the URL).

    • Phase2: using the content ID in Probe protocol.

    • Phase 3: getting file via TCP.

OpenFlow

router

New Client

Current Client

Destination: serverIP :START

Phase 2

Destination: CurrentClientIP :START

START/ACK

With CurrentClientIP in the probe header

ACK / ACK

Destination: CurrentClientIP

Phase 3

TCP Session

Fig 1: Procedure for getting content

(Hand shake of the Probe Protocol)


10 applications

10- Applications:

  • Characterized by large number of users, and long time sessions.

  • Aiding P2P network:

    • e.g.: live video of a sport show.

    • Popular: many users.

    • Long time session.

    • Content Anycast can:

      • Reduce user start-up time.

      • Reduce load on server or management entity.

  • Popular Large File Distribution:

    • Popular: many users.

    • Large file: long session.

    • Content Anycast can:

      • reduce the load on server.


10 1 app1 popular large file distribution

10-1: App1: Popular Large File Distribution:

  • Example of use.

Fig 1: installing redirections

Fig 2: requesting content; phase2

Fig 3: requesting content; phase3


10 app1 popular large file distribution evaluation

10-App1: Popular Large File Distribution:Evaluation:

  • Using simple simulator, built using Java.

  • Simulates a network with 5 areas (5 networks);

    • Content Anycast: use only one server.

    • Regular Anycast: 5 replica servers each in one network.

  • Measure the server load : number of connections the server serves.

  • Shows that :

    • Regular Client server: single server load is 100%(one server for all)

    • Regular anycast: each server out of 5 load is 20%.

    • Content Anycast : single server load is 50%,33%, 25% and 20%respectively for case of client can serve 1, 2, 3, 4 other clients.


10 1 app1 popular large file distribution evaluation

10-1: App1: Popular Large File Distribution: Evaluation:

  • Content Anycast can achieve same load as regular anycast but using only one server instead of 5.


10 2 app2 p2p construction

10-2: App2: P2P construction:

  • Regular P2P network.

  • To join the network the client must follow steps:

    • locatethe peer to contact, and arrange with management entity.

    • Contact that peer to get content.

  • This is done by asking the management entity (e.g. tracker) about which peer to contact to and receive its reply.

Fig 1: Steps for Getting Content in regular P2P


10 2 app2 p2p construction1

10-2: App2: P2P construction:

  • Using Content Anycast in P2P network.

  • To join the network the client must follow steps:

    • locate the peer to contact, and Contact that peer to get content.

    • Reportandarrangewith the management entity.

  • This is done by using preinstalled redirection on the network.

Fig 1: Steps for Getting Content in Content Anycast P2P


10 2 app2 p2p construction2

10-2: App2: P2P construction:

  • Example of use.

Fig 1: installing redirections

Fig 2: requesting content; phase2

Fig 3: requesting content; phase3


10 2 app2 p2p construction evaluation

10-2: App2: P2P construction: Evaluation:

  • To evaluate start-up time:

    • Count the number of hops that the client request travels across the network + hops reply travels.

  • Content Anycast, average hops = 5.

  • Regular P2P, average hops = 14.

  • Content Anycast has a lower hop count due to using pre-installed redirections that lead request to peer in same network.


10 2 app2 p2p construction evaluation1

10-2: App2: P2P construction: Evaluation:

Server load limit

  • To evaluate serve/management entity load.

  • Generate flash crowds periodically every 100 cycle.

  • Count the number of peer quivery requests received by the server/ management entity.

  • Content Anycast has a lower load due to using pre-installed redirections that lead request to peer in same network rather than the server.


11 conclusion

11- Conclusion:

  • New mechanism for requesting content is designed to enable content anycasting.

    • Using the content id in the process of getting the content.

    • A Probe protocol is designed (modification to UDP) to be used.

  • Simulation shows that Content anycast can

    • reduce load to match reduction of the regular anycast (under some conditions) using only one server.

      • On simulation scenario: 80% reduction in number of servers.

    • construct P2P network that has shorter start-up time and less load on the management entity/ server.

      • On simulation scenario: 74% reduction in number of hops needed to get contents.


12 q a

12- Q&A:

  • Thank you for listening.


7 how to combine technologies

7-How to Combine Technologies:

  • Headers of the Probe protocol

Fig1: UDP Header

Fig2: Probe Protocol Header


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