Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion
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PP 1 Human Alimentary Canal/ Mechanical Digestion. Plus –Definitions for All of Digestion. Definitions. Ingestion – taking in substances (food [eating] / drinking) into the body through the mouth.

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PP 1 Human Alimentary Canal/ Mechanical Digestion

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Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

PP 1 Human Alimentary Canal/ Mechanical Digestion

Plus –Definitions for All of Digestion


Definitions

Definitions

  • Ingestion – taking in substances (food [eating] / drinking) into the body through the mouth.

  • Digestion – breaking down large insoluble food molecules into small water soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes.

  • Absorption – movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestines into the blood or lymph .


Definitions continued

Definitions continued

Assimilation – movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used – becoming part of cell.

Egestion – Passing out of food that has not been digested as faeces through anus


Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

Alimentary canal = long tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus – the way food

travels through the system.

Ingestion

Assimilation

ENZYMES

ENZYMES

Egestion

Absorption

Digestion


Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

Nasal Cavity

Mouth

Trachea

Small intestine =

Duodenum ->

Ileum

Oesophagus

Liver

Stomach

Large Intestine =

Colon -> Rectum

Gall Bladder

Pancreas

Duodenum

Ileum

Large Intestine

Colon

Abdomen = the area below

Ribs and above Hip bone

Rectum

Appendix

Anus


Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

  • Capillary absorb:

  • sugar / a. a. / vitamins / inorganic ions / water

  • Lacteal absorb:

  • fatty acids / glycerol

  • The Villi: Surface area is important


Breaking food down

Breaking food down

  • 10 hours for food to pass through from the mouth

  • Mechanical digestion = physical breaking up food by teeth (chewing) and stomach walls churning (Peristalsis).

  • Chemical Digestion = Break down of food molecules via enzymes.


Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

SI : Small Intestine / LI = Large Intestine


Pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

SI : Small Intestine / LI = Large Intestine


Process of chewing

Process of Chewing

  • In the mouth:

  • Large premolars and molars

  • Both have broad surfaces / ridges on them => when pushed together they crush the food

  • To increase the surface area of the food

  • Makes it easier for the enzyme to work on the food.

  • Bolus = Food made by the tongue into a ball of food to be swallowed.


Human teeth structure function

Human teeth – structure / function


Dental decay proper teeth care

Dental decay / proper teeth care

  • Tooth decay – when enamel erodes due to acids (produced by bacteria)

  • Plaque formation – bacteria and food caught in between teeth that harden around the tooth.

  • Foods full of sugar can increases changes for plaque formation => dissolve enamel down to the dentine.


Teeth decay prevention

Teeth decay prevention

  • Avoid sugary foods.

  • Regularly clean your teeth (brush / dental floss/ tooth pick)

  • Use tooth paste with fluoride (is absorbed by the teeth and prevents acid build up)

  • Visit dentist regularly.


Fluoride prevention of tooth decay

Fluoride & prevention of tooth decay

  • Fluoride in drinking water creates less tooth decay.

  • Too much fluoride can cause black spots of teeth. Can cause vomiting / stomach cramps too.

  • Best concentration of fluoride is 1 part per million.


Peristalsis

Peristalsis

  • Longitudinal muscles – lengthwise

  • Circular muscles – around

    Swallow -> circular muscle relaxes (tube gets wider) -> behind food circular muscle contracts .

    When circular muscle relaxes – longitudinal muscle contracts (visa versa)

  • Happens all the way down the alimentary canal


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