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PP 1 Human Alimentary Canal/ Mechanical Digestion. Plus –Definitions for All of Digestion. Definitions. Ingestion – taking in substances (food [eating] / drinking) into the body through the mouth.

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pp 1 human alimentary canal mechanical digestion

PP 1 Human Alimentary Canal/ Mechanical Digestion

Plus –Definitions for All of Digestion

definitions
Definitions
  • Ingestion – taking in substances (food [eating] / drinking) into the body through the mouth.
  • Digestion – breaking down large insoluble food molecules into small water soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes.
  • Absorption – movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestines into the blood or lymph .
definitions continued
Definitions continued

Assimilation – movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used – becoming part of cell.

Egestion – Passing out of food that has not been digested as faeces through anus

slide4

Alimentary canal = long tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus – the way food

travels through the system.

Ingestion

Assimilation

ENZYMES

ENZYMES

Egestion

Absorption

Digestion

slide5

Nasal Cavity

Mouth

Trachea

Small intestine =

Duodenum ->

Ileum

Oesophagus

Liver

Stomach

Large Intestine =

Colon -> Rectum

Gall Bladder

Pancreas

Duodenum

Ileum

Large Intestine

Colon

Abdomen = the area below

Ribs and above Hip bone

Rectum

Appendix

Anus

slide7

Capillary absorb:

  • sugar / a. a. / vitamins / inorganic ions / water
  • Lacteal absorb:
  • fatty acids / glycerol
  • The Villi: Surface area is important
breaking food down
Breaking food down
  • 10 hours for food to pass through from the mouth
  • Mechanical digestion = physical breaking up food by teeth (chewing) and stomach walls churning (Peristalsis).
  • Chemical Digestion = Break down of food molecules via enzymes.
process of chewing
Process of Chewing
  • In the mouth:
  • Large premolars and molars
  • Both have broad surfaces / ridges on them => when pushed together they crush the food
  • To increase the surface area of the food
  • Makes it easier for the enzyme to work on the food.
  • Bolus = Food made by the tongue into a ball of food to be swallowed.
dental decay proper teeth care
Dental decay / proper teeth care
  • Tooth decay – when enamel erodes due to acids (produced by bacteria)
  • Plaque formation – bacteria and food caught in between teeth that harden around the tooth.
  • Foods full of sugar can increases changes for plaque formation => dissolve enamel down to the dentine.
teeth decay prevention
Teeth decay prevention
  • Avoid sugary foods.
  • Regularly clean your teeth (brush / dental floss/ tooth pick)
  • Use tooth paste with fluoride (is absorbed by the teeth and prevents acid build up)
  • Visit dentist regularly.
fluoride prevention of tooth decay
Fluoride & prevention of tooth decay
  • Fluoride in drinking water creates less tooth decay.
  • Too much fluoride can cause black spots of teeth. Can cause vomiting / stomach cramps too.
  • Best concentration of fluoride is 1 part per million.
peristalsis
Peristalsis
  • Longitudinal muscles – lengthwise
  • Circular muscles – around

Swallow -> circular muscle relaxes (tube gets wider) -> behind food circular muscle contracts .

When circular muscle relaxes – longitudinal muscle contracts (visa versa)

  • Happens all the way down the alimentary canal
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