chapter 19 land pollution
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Chapter 19 Land Pollution

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Chapter 19 Land Pollution. Section 19.1 – Solid Wastes. Solid wastes – all garbage and sludge products from agriculture, forestry, mining, and municipalities. Includes: garbage, trash, junk, scrap and sewage. Garbage Disposal in the Past. People disposed of garbage in the streets .

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section 19 1 solid wastes
Section 19.1 – Solid Wastes
  • Solid wastes – all garbage and sludge products from agriculture, forestry, mining, and municipalities.
    • Includes: garbage, trash, junk, scrap and sewage.
  • Garbage Disposal in the Past.
    • People disposed of garbage in the streets.
    • 1892 – outbreaks of typhoid fever (bacterial disease) and cholera (intestinal bacterial infection) forced NY officials to establish better sanitary condition\'s.
section 19 1 solid wastes1
Section 19.1 – Solid Wastes
  • 1900 – Garbage collected from the streets, loaded into barges and dumped into the ocean.
  • Landfills were established to solve the problem of the polluted waters.
  • Landfill – a site where wastes are disposed of by burying them.
  • About 70% of today’s garbage is dumped in landfills.
section 19 1 solid wastes2
Section 19.1 – Solid Wastes
  • Problems with landfills.
    • Space
    • Odor
    • Disease
    • Pests
    • Rainfall carries pollutants to

soli and water. Also known as leaching.

  • Sanitary Landfills
    • Cover waste with layers of soil.
    • Produces methane gas (combustible)
    • Leaching of toxic substances.
    • To prevent need impermeable liners.
section 19 2 hazardous wastes
Section 19.2 – Hazardous Wastes

Effects of Hazardous Materials

  • Hazardous wastes – solid, liquid, or gaseous wastes that are potentially harmful to humans and the environment, even in low concentrations.
  • Problems
    • Containers leak, wastes enters land and water. Gases (known as oxides) are released into the atmosphere.
section 19 2 hazardous wastes1
Section 19.2 – Hazardous Wastes

Classification of Hazardous Materials

1. Reactive wastes – can explode.

Sodium – Metal comes in contact with water

2. Corrosive wastes – can eat through steel and many other materials.

Battery acid and lye (drain-cleaning products).

section 19 2 hazardous wastes2
Section 19.2 – Hazardous Wastes
  • Ignitable wastes – Can burst into flames at relatively low temperatures.

- Immediate danger to smoke and fire and fumes.

  • Toxic wastes – chemicals that are poisonous to people
    • Can cause birth defects, cancer and health problems.
section 19 2 hazardous wastes3
Section 19.2 – Hazardous Wastes
  • Radioactive wastes – radiation that can harm people and other organisms.
    • Nuclear power plants, medical and scientific research
  • MedicalWastes – Old medicines, medicine containers, lab equipment, lab specimens, used syringes, blood vials, and tissue samples.
section 19 2 hazardous wastes4
Section 19.2 – Hazardous Wastes

Hazardous Home Wastes

  • Ammonia
  • Bleach
  • Toilet-bowl cleaners
  • Drain cleaners
  • Oven cleaners
  • Disinfectants
  • Furniture polish
  • Medicines
  • Paints
  • Oil
  • Pesticides
section 19 3 topsoil erosion
Section 19.3 – Topsoil erosion
  • Erosion – natural forces that carry away soil.
  • Major causes are wind and running water.
  • Activities such as overgrazing, cultivation, deforestation and poor irrigation causes soil loss and desertification.
  • About 30% of earth’s land has undergone desertification
  • In the U.S., parts of AZ, CO, CA and TX are at risk.
section 19 3 topsoil erosion2
Section 19.3 – Topsoil erosion

Soil Conservation and Land Management

1. Strip-Cropping – Farmland is plowed so that plowed trips are separated by planted strips.

- Having at least part of the land covered by vegetation reduces topsoil loss.

2. Shelter Belts – Rows of trees are

planted along the edges of a field.

- Also known as windbreaks.

- They slow down the wind to

prevent soil loss.

section 19 4 controlling pollution on land
Section 19.4 – Controlling Pollution on Land

Reducing the Volume of Waste

  • Disposable items make up about ¼ of all wastes placed in landfills.
  • Reusable items can eliminate that fraction.
    • 50% of waste by communities is paper products
  • Recycling can also eliminate that number.
  • Don’t trash biodegradable products.
    • Biodegradable – substances decompose easily and enrich the soil.
    • Can be used to make a compost pile.
    • Plant waste and certain food waste are used.
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