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Federal Aviation Administration. Flammability Reduction Methods: Compliance Options. AAR-440 Fire Safety Branch Wm. J. Hughes Technical Center Federal Aviation Administration. Reticulated Foam. Advantages:. 100% protection Passive System No model – no need for flight testing.

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Flammability Reduction Methods: Compliance Options

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Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Federal Aviation

Administration

Flammability Reduction Methods: Compliance

Options

AAR-440 Fire Safety BranchWm. J. Hughes Technical CenterFederal Aviation Administration


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Reticulated Foam

Advantages:

  • 100% protection

  • Passive System

  • No model – no need for flight testing

Disadvantages:

  • Weight

  • Fuel displacement

  • Interference with maintenance

  • Haz. Mat. When out of tank

Certification issues:

  • Foam pedigree

  • Voiding

  • Durability

  • Interference in tank


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Inerting with Stored CO2

Advantages:

  • ?

Disadvantages:

  • Must be stored on aircraft

Certification issues:

  • Needed O2 concentration not known

  • Fuel solubility

  • Effect on pumps


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Inerting with Exhaust Gas

Advantages:

  • Already produced on aircraft

Disadvantages:

  • How to obtain

Certification issues:

  • Needed O2 concentration unknown

  • Contaminants unknown


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Catalytic Inerting

Advantages:

  • Possible weight

  • Less power from aircraft

  • environmental

Disadvantages:

  • ?

Certification issues:

  • Needed O2 concentration not known

  • Fuel solubility

  • Effect on pumps


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Rapid Ventilation

Advantages:

  • Cost

  • Weight

Disadvantages:

  • Loss of fuel

  • Environmental

  • Need for in-tank monitoring

Certification issues:

  • Tank flammability verification


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Misting Fuel Vapor

Advantages:

  • Possible weight savings

  • Possible lower cost

Disadvantages:

  • Loss of fuel

  • Environmental

  • Safety issues

Certification issues:

  • Post crash implications

  • Failure modes

  • In-tank hydrocarbon measurements


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Nitrogen Inerting

  • Cryogenic Nitrogen

  • High Pressure Stored Nitrogen

  • Ground Based Nitrogen

  • Two Flow Nitrogen

  • Full Time On Demand Nitrogen


Flammability reduction methods compliance options

Cryogenic Nitrogen

Stored: Too heavy

Manufactured: Developing technology


High pressure stored nitrogen

High Pressure Stored Nitrogen

Too Heavy


Ground based nitrogen

Ground Based Nitrogen

  • Logistics

  • Manpower


Two flow nitrogen

Present system of Choice

Two Flow Nitrogen


Full time on demand nitrogen

Full Time On Demand Nitrogen

  • Advantages:

    • Less power from aircraft

    • Environmental

Disadvantages:

  • Weight

  • Vent valve


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