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Long Bone Structure. Basic parts of the long bone: 1. Shaft is known as the ________________. Consists of a thick ____________of compact bone surrounding a ________________________________ (yellow bone marrow/ fat in adults) 2. Expanded ends are ______________

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long bone structure
Long Bone Structure

Basic parts of the long bone:

1. Shaft is known as the ________________.

  • Consists of a thick ____________of compact bone surrounding a ________________________________ (yellow bone marrow/ fat in adults)

2. Expanded ends are ______________

  • Consists of a _______layer of _____________ bone covering an interior of ____________ bone.
  • These _______surfaces are covered w/ a type of __________cartilage called ____________cartilage. It ___________the bone ends and reduces _____________during movement.
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3. The _____________surface of the entire bone except for the joint surfaces of the epiphyses is covered by a double-layered membrane known as the ________________.
  • Outer fibrous layer is ________ ______________ ______________ tissue.
  • ________________is richly supplied with _____________ fibers, ________________vessels and ________________vessels.
    • These enter the bone of the shaft via a nutrient ________________.
  • ________________is connected to the bone matrix via strong strands of ________________.
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4. ________________bone surfaces are covered with a delicate ________________tissue membrane known as the ________________.
  • Covers the ________________of spongy bone in the ________________cavities and lines the canals that pass through ________________bone.
  • Contains both ________________ and ________________.
structure of short irregular and flat bones
Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones

1. Thin plates of ________________- covered compact bone on the outside and ________________________________ spongy bone within.

2. Have no ________________or ________________… why?

3. Contain bone ________________ between their trabeculae, but no ________________cavity.

4. In flat bones, the _____________ spongy bone layer is known as the ________________, and the whole arrangement resembles a stiffened sandwich.

bone marrow
Bone Marrow
  • The soft tissue occupying the ________________cavity of a long bone.
  • There are 2 main types: ________________________________
    • ________________________________= blood cell forming tissue = ________________tissue
      • Looks like ________________but with a thicker consistency.
      • It consists of a delicate mesh of ________________tissue saturated with immature _____________________ ___________ and scattered ________________.

Notice the red marrow and the compact bone

distribution of marrow
Distribution of Marrow

1. In a child, the _______________ cavity of nearly every bone is filled with ____ bone marrow.

2. In young to middle-aged adults, the shafts of the long bones are filled with __________________________________________________________.

  • ______________marrow no longer produces ____________, although in the event of severe or chronic ___________, it can transform back into ______ marrow

3. In adults, ______ marrow is limited to the _______skeleton, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, and proximal heads of the humerus and the femur.

growth in bone length
Growth in Bone Length
  • ________________cartilage (close to the epiphysis) of the ________________ plate divides to create more ________________, while the ________________ cartilage (close to the diaphysis) of the ________________ plate is transformed into bone. This increases the ________________ of the shaft.
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At puberty, growth in bone length is increased dramatically by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.

  • As a result osteoblasts begin producing bone faster than the rate of epiphyseal cartilage expansion. Thus the bone grows while the epiphyseal plate gets narrower and narrower and ultimately disappears. A remnant (epiphyseal line) is visible on X-rays (do you see them in the adjacent femur, tibia, and fibula?)
fracture types
Fracture Types

Fractures are often classified according to the ________________of the bone ends after the break:

1. ______(_____________) bone ends penetrate the ______.

2. ________(___________) bone ends don’t penetrate the _____.

3. ______________bone fragments into __ or more pieces. Common in the ________________ (________________ bones).

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4. ________________ bone breaks ________________. One side _____, one side _______. Common in ___________ whose bone contains more __________ and are less mineralized.

5. _________ ragged break caused by excessive _____________forces. ________________________________.

6. ________________________________ one bone fragment is driven into the ________________space or ________________ bone of another.

bone disorders
Bone Disorders

1. ________________

  • Literally “________________.”
  • Typically occurs from amount of ________________ in the diet and ________________ deficiency.

2. ________________

  • Children\'s form of ________________
  • More detrimental due to the fact that their ______ are still ________________.
  • Signs include ________ legs, and deformities of the ________________________________________________________________________________.

What about the above x-ray is indicative of rickets?

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3. ________________
  • Osteo=________ + myelo=_____________ + it is=________________.
  • ________________of ______ and bone ________________caused by pus-forming ________________that enter the body via a wound (e.g., ___________ fracture) or migrate from a nearby ________________.
  • ________________before the advent of ________________.
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4. ________________
  • Group of diseases in which bone ________________occurs at a faster rate than bone ________________.
  • Bone _________drops and bones become increasingly ___________.
  • ________________fractures of the ________________and fractures of the ___________ are common.
  • Often seen in ________________ ________________because they experience a rapid decline in ________________ secretion; ________________helps the bones ________________ and encourages cells to use dietary ______________________ ______________________________ ______________________________.
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