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Long Bone Structure. Basic parts of the long bone: 1. Shaft is known as the ________________. Consists of a thick ____________of compact bone surrounding a ________________________________ (yellow bone marrow/ fat in adults) 2. Expanded ends are ______________

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Long bone structure
Long Bone Structure

Basic parts of the long bone:

1. Shaft is known as the ________________.

  • Consists of a thick ____________of compact bone surrounding a ________________________________ (yellow bone marrow/ fat in adults)

    2. Expanded ends are ______________

  • Consists of a _______layer of _____________ bone covering an interior of ____________ bone.

  • These _______surfaces are covered w/ a type of __________cartilage called ____________cartilage. It ___________the bone ends and reduces _____________during movement.


3. The _____________surface of the entire bone except for the joint surfaces of the epiphyses is covered by a double-layered membrane known as the ________________.

  • Outer fibrous layer is ________ ______________ ______________ tissue.

  • ________________is richly supplied with _____________ fibers, ________________vessels and ________________vessels.

    • These enter the bone of the shaft via a nutrient ________________.

  • ________________is connected to the bone matrix via strong strands of ________________.


4. ________________bone surfaces are covered with a delicate ________________tissue membrane known as the ________________.

  • Covers the ________________of spongy bone in the ________________cavities and lines the canals that pass through ________________bone.

  • Contains both ________________ and ________________.


Structure of short irregular and flat bones
Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones

1. Thin plates of ________________- covered compact bone on the outside and ________________________________ spongy bone within.

2. Have no ________________or ________________… why?

3. Contain bone ________________ between their trabeculae, but no ________________cavity.

4. In flat bones, the _____________ spongy bone layer is known as the ________________, and the whole arrangement resembles a stiffened sandwich.


Bone marrow
Bone Marrow

  • The soft tissue occupying the ________________cavity of a long bone.

  • There are 2 main types: ________________________________

    • ________________________________= blood cell forming tissue = ________________tissue

      • Looks like ________________but with a thicker consistency.

      • It consists of a delicate mesh of ________________tissue saturated with immature _____________________ ___________ and scattered ________________.

Notice the red marrow and the compact bone


Distribution of marrow
Distribution of Marrow

1. In a child, the _______________ cavity of nearly every bone is filled with ____ bone marrow.

2. In young to middle-aged adults, the shafts of the long bones are filled with __________________________________________________________.

  • ______________marrow no longer produces ____________, although in the event of severe or chronic ___________, it can transform back into ______ marrow

    3. In adults, ______ marrow is limited to the _______skeleton, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, and proximal heads of the humerus and the femur.


Growth in bone length
Growth in Bone Length

  • ________________cartilage (close to the epiphysis) of the ________________ plate divides to create more ________________, while the ________________ cartilage (close to the diaphysis) of the ________________ plate is transformed into bone. This increases the ________________ of the shaft.


At puberty, growth in bone length is increased dramatically by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.

  • As a result osteoblasts begin producing bone faster than the rate of epiphyseal cartilage expansion. Thus the bone grows while the epiphyseal plate gets narrower and narrower and ultimately disappears. A remnant (epiphyseal line) is visible on X-rays (do you see them in the adjacent femur, tibia, and fibula?)


Fracture types
Fracture Types by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.

Fractures are often classified according to the ________________of the bone ends after the break:

1. ______(_____________) bone ends penetrate the ______.

2. ________(___________) bone ends don’t penetrate the _____.

3. ______________bone fragments into __ or more pieces. Common in the ________________ (________________ bones).


4. by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.________________ bone breaks ________________. One side _____, one side _______. Common in ___________ whose bone contains more __________ and are less mineralized.

5. _________ ragged break caused by excessive _____________forces. ________________________________.

6. ________________________________ one bone fragment is driven into the ________________space or ________________ bone of another.


Bone disorders
Bone Disorders by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.

1. ________________

  • Literally “________________.”

  • Typically occurs from amount of ________________ in the diet and ________________ deficiency.

    2. ________________

  • Children's form of ________________

  • More detrimental due to the fact that their ______ are still ________________.

  • Signs include ________ legs, and deformities of the ________________________________________________________________________________.

What about the above x-ray is indicative of rickets?


3. ________________ by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.

  • Osteo=________ + myelo=_____________ + it is=________________.

  • ________________of ______ and bone ________________caused by pus-forming ________________that enter the body via a wound (e.g., ___________ fracture) or migrate from a nearby ________________.

  • ________________before the advent of ________________.


4. ________________ by the combined activities of growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the sex hormones.

  • Group of diseases in which bone ________________occurs at a faster rate than bone ________________.

  • Bone _________drops and bones become increasingly ___________.

  • ________________fractures of the ________________and fractures of the ___________ are common.

  • Often seen in ________________ ________________because they experience a rapid decline in ________________ secretion; ________________helps the bones ________________ and encourages cells to use dietary ______________________ ______________________________ ______________________________.


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