Chapter 16 The Cold War 1945-1960. Section 1 The Cold War Begins. Objectives. What are the reasons that the wartime alliance between the US and the Soviet Union unraveled (fell apart)? 2. Explain how President Truman responded to Soviet domination of Eastern Europe?
The Cold War Begins
What are the reasons that the wartime alliance between the US and the Soviet Union unraveled (fell apart)?
2. Explain how President Truman responded to Soviet domination of Eastern Europe?
3. Describe the causes and results off Stalin’s blockade of Berlin?
After WWII, U.S. General George Patton administered western Germany, while Soviets officials governed eastern Germany, Patton looked to the east and proclaimed:
“Russia knows what she wants. World domination!...Let’s keep our boots polished, bayonets sharpened. And present a picture of force and strength to the Russians. This is the only language that they will understand and respect. If we fail to do this, then I would like to say that we have had a victory over the Germans and have disarmed them, but we have lost the war.”
According to Patton, what is the goal of the Soviet Union?
In 1930s, the policies of isolationism and appeasement contributed to the rise of dictatorships and the outbreak of global war.
After WWII, US realized these policies were a mistake; looked for new ways to make US safe as well as protect its interests around the world.
How did US leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe?
Franklin Roosevelt dies in April 1945
US still at war
Relations with Soviet Union (one of the most important wartime allies) breaks down
US and Soviet Union united only in opposition to Nazi Germany
Citizens believed in free elections
Economic and religious freedom
Respect for individual differences
Under Stalin, Communist Party made all key economic, political, and military decisions
People could not worship as they pleased
People could not own property, or express their views freely
Those who opposed face imprisonment or death
At Yalta Conf. inn 1945, clear the allies would defeat Germany
Not clear how Germany and the nations of Eastern Europe would be governed after the war
Soviet troops already occupied much of Eastern Europe and some of Germany
Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak
Wanted Eastern Europe to remain under Soviet control
US and GB sought a stronger, united Germany
Wanted independent nations in Eastern Europe
Despite Stalin’s promises, nearly all of the land occupied by Soviet Red Army in spring of 1945 remained under Soviet control after the war
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria; plus East Germany became know as “Satellite States” of the Soviet Union.
Change in leadership by the time of the Potsdam Conference in 1945
Roosevelt had died in April 1945, Harry S. Truman now president
Churchill replaced by Clement Attlee
Truman left Potsdam believing Soviets were “planning world conquest”
Truman also believed alliance with Soviets falling apart
Stalin had Soviet Red Army at his command
Stage set for worldwide rivalry betw. US and Soviets
This 46-year long struggle became known as the “Cold War”
How did the goals of US and Soviet foreign policy differ after WWII?
Truman not only world leader who believed Soviets had aspirations of world domination.
March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill at Fulton College, Missouri; referred to map of Europe and said that “an iron curtain has descended across the Continent”
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of … Central and Eastern Europe … The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control”
Why did the Soviet Union support the creation of communist states in Eastern Europe?
East of the iron curtain, Soviets gain control by installing communist governments and police states and by crushing political and religious dissent
Shares Churchill’s beliefs.
Born in small Missouri town
-Too poor to attend college (only
president of 20th C. with no college
-worked on family farm
-fought in France in WWI
-began political career afterwards
-known for his honesty, integrity,
hard work, and willingness to make
March 12, 1947, addressed both houses of Congress.
Describes plight of Greeks and Turks
-said they were fighting a fight all free people had to
-request money from Congress “to support free peoples
who are resisting attempted subjugation (conquest) by
armed minorities or by outside pressures”
-warned US could not retreat into “isolationism”
-peace of the world and welfare of the nation at danger.
Congress responded by voting $400 million in aid
-Truman’s promise to aid those struggling against
Communism know as the “Truman Doctrine”
What events caused President Truman to propose what became known as the Truman Doctrine?
July 1947 in “Foreign Affairs” magazine author who called himself “X” published “The Sources of Soviet Conduct”
Presented blueprint for American policy that became known as “containment”
-goal to keep communism contained
within existing borders
Author was really George F. Kennan, an American diplomat and leading authority on the Soviet Union
Why did George Kennan think that containment would work against Soviet expansion?
Stalin able to closed roads, stop barges, and block railway; could not blockade the sky
-for almost a year, a massive airlift
supplied West Berlin
-food, fuel, medical supplies, clothing,
toys-everything needed was flown into
Berlin Airlift demonstrated to West Berlin, Soviet Union, and world how far US would go to protect noncommunist Europe and contain communism
May 1949, Stalin was forced blockade of Berlin failed.
Berlin airlift demonstrated that Stalin could be contained if Western nations prepared to take forceful action.
How did the US and its allies apply containment policy in Europe?