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Тяжелые ядра в космосе – источник радиационной опасности вблизи  Земли и в межпланетном пространстве. Heavy Nuclei in Space – the Source of Danger in the Vicinity of the Earth and in the Interplanetary Space. Mikhail Panasyuk Moscow State University.

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Heavy Nuclei in Space

the Source of Danger

in the Vicinity of the Earth and in the Interplanetary Space

Mikhail Panasyuk

Moscow State University

Space Weather Effects on Humans:in Space and on Earth

International Conference

Space Research InstituteMoscow, RussiaJune 4-8, 2012


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The first visualization of HZE

GCR (Fe)

Apollo 11

N. Armstrong

B. Aldrin

M. Collins


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HZE particles effects

Absorbed dose 0,5 Zv

Nuclei

Electrons


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HZE particles impact on microchips

SEE

## SEE

Minimum of SA

Maximum of SA

Single Events Effects

Years


Hze particles in the earth s environment

HZE particles in the Earths Environment


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The Earths Radiation Belts

~7R

- ~

-

-

-


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. R - , . Ee >20


Energy spectra of cosmic radiation

Solar wind (H)

Energy spectra of cosmic radiation

10

Radiation belts

0

Solar

energetic

particles

lg I

Galactic and extragalactic

cosmic rays (H)

-10

1keV/n

1 MeVn

1 GeVn

1 TeVn

lg E (eV/nucl)

3

6

9

12


Low altitudes leo

Low altitudes (LEO)


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400 km

ISS


South atlantic anomaly

South Atlantic Anomaly

h=500km, 1970, B model JSFC12/66(1970)

AE8max

h = 400 km


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SEE in the SAA

,

,


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,

>40 M

W


Solar cycle dependence

Solar cycle dependence.

Proton

flux

Atmospheric density

year


Secular variations of geomagnetic field model igrf

SAA: magnetic field secular variations

Secular Variations of Geomagnetic Field (Model IGRF)

1980

1950

2010

  • Magnetic field become weaker ( at h = const)

  • SAA moving to the west


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neutrons

Shielding

CR track

p

Mg

~ 25

~ 5

Sensitive region

Interection region

Semiconductor chip


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Neutron Environment

Solar neutrons

GCR protons

Local

neutrons

Albedo

neutrons


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Secondary protons&neutrons


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Local neutrons generation vs S/C mass


Neutron dose equivalent sv h

Neutron dose equivalent(Sv/h)

Neutron dose equivalent rate was estimated using the

energy spectrum with the ICRP-74 coefficient .

Neutron dose equivalent (Goka et al)

(From March 23 to July 7, All orbit)


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Altitude dependence of SEE

1250-1350

650-750

2450-2550

APEX,


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SEP


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Solar wind (H)

1010

Solar Energetic Particles

, .

100

Solar cosmic rays

Galactic cosmic rays

10-10

1/

1 /

1 /

1 /

lgE

(/)

3

6

9

12


See during sep s events and modeling of see

SEE during SEPs events and modeling of SEE


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SEE at LEO


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How many HZE particles in SEP events?


Hze abundance in sep

HZE abundance in SEP

Nymmik, 2012,private communication


Hze abundance in sep1

HZE abundance in SEP

Nymmik, 2012,private communication

Abundance of HZE particles

on the tail of SEPs events is unerestimated?


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Neutrons response of solar flares


Neutron dose equivalent sv h1

Neutron dose equivalent(Sv/h)

We have investigated the neutron dose equivalent inside

the ISS on the influence of solar flare.

Neutron dose equivalent

(For 24 hours from 12(UT) on April 15)

Animation\animation.htm


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Galactic cosmic rays


Gcr modulation

GCR modulation

?


Instead of conclusions

Instead of conclusions

PROBLEMS

(just a sketch)


Problems

PROBLEMS

1. Limitation of knowledge to estimate the real risk


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p +Si

  • - ,


See vs lte

## SEE vs LTE


However

However

HXRHPPC

Lintz et al, Single Event Effects Hardening andCharacterization of Honeywells RHPPC ProcessorIntegrated Circuit


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Rats expedition to Mars

Rats behavior is changing after 3 months

of HZE exposure !


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Expedition to Mars

Do we need one way ticket?


Problems1

PROBLEMS

2. Limitation of on ground facilities for modeling of space environment


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Neutrons in space and in the Earths atmosphere


How to minimize risk from hze

How to minimize risk from HZE?

Electronics

Onground space qualification tests (certification) with using of accelerators facilities just a black hole for funds

What to do ?

- To combine design/manufacturing process with radiation testing

- To imply special soft/scheme/construction

decisions to minimize SEE

- Planning of missions


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Planning of missions

Spacecraft is a robot, but with elements a manual management by people

,

,


How to minimize risk from hze1

How to minimize risk from HZE?

Humans

- To combine design/manufacturing process with radiation testing

- To imply special soft/scheme/construction

decisions to minimize SEE

- Planning of missions, new estimation of risks


How to minimize risk from hze2

How to minimize risk from HZE?

Humans

Planning of missions

Probably, we are on a way of developing temporal limitation for long-duration space missions on concept of new risks estimation

Time the only real shield against HZE particles for humans body in space


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Thank you


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