Chemical Bonding

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Objectives. Define chemical bond.Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds.Describe ionic and covalent bonding.Explain why most chemical bonding is neither purely ionic nor purely covalent.Classify bonding type according to electronegativity differences.. Section 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding.

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Chemical Bonding

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1. Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding

3. Chemical Bond – atoms bound together by a mutual electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons Ionic Bond – bond between anions (-) and cations (+) caused by the transfer of electrons between atoms – usually a metal and a nonmetal Covalent Bond – bond between atoms that share valence electrons – usually 2 nonmetals Metallic Bonding – attraction between metals with delocalized electrons – (not a real bond) Hydrogen Bond – attraction that occurs between hydrogen atoms in a compound and strongly electronegative atoms with lone pairs of electrons (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) (not a real bond)

5. Predicting Bond Type by Electronegativity Difference

9. Molecule – Compound – Chemical Formula – Molecular Formula – .

10. Covalent Bond Characteristics Bond Length – average distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy Bond Angle – angle between three bonded atoms Bond Energy – energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms

12. Lewis Structures Structural Formula – shows the kind, number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule (may or may not show lone pairs) Octet Rule – compounds tend to form so that both atoms have eight electrons in their outer energy level Exceptions – hydrogen & expanded octets Electron Dot Notation – Lewis Dots – shows valence electrons

13. Rules for Drawing Lewis Structures Determine the type and number of atoms Determine the total number of valence electrons available to bond Draw skeletal structure (least electronegative atom is usually central) Draw bonds Place extra electrons to fill octet Check or recount electrons to make sure everything is “HAPPY”

14. Simple Structures

15. More Single Bonds

16. Multiple Covalent Bonds

17. Resonant Structures – two or more possible structures for the same molecule

19. Ionic Compounds – positive and negative ions combined in such a way that the net charge is 0 Formula Unit – simplest collection (ratio) of atoms in an ionic compound

20. I o n i c B o n d s

21. Crystal Lattice – orderly arrangement of an ionic crystal

22. Basic Lattice Systems

23. Properties of Bond Types Covalent Molecules Low melting points Low boiling points insulators Ionic Compounds High melting points High boiling points Conductors when molten

24. Polyatomic Ions – a group of covalently bonded atoms that has a charge

26. Metallic Bonding – attraction between metals with delocalized electrons – (not a real bond) Properties Good conductors of heat and electricity Good reflectors (shiny) Malleable Ductile High tensile strength

29. Molecular Geometry – Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory – Predicts shapes of molecules based on the repulsion of unshared pairs of electrons (lone pairs)

33. Examples

35. – mixing of two or more orbitals of similar energies to make orbitals with the same energy

36. – molecules that have a positive and negative ends due to the arrangement of bonds and lone pairs

37. forces of attraction between molecules that are weaker than bonds

39. Homework Page 209-211 Numbers 3,5,6,15,16,20,21,23,24,25,28,29,31,38,46 48,49

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