The suburbanization of transport terminals and freight distribution centers
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The Suburbanization of Transport Terminals and Freight Distribution Centers. Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Dept. of Economics & Geography Hofstra University Hempstead, NY http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/jean-paul_rodrigue/. Outline. Transport in Suburbia: Assets and Liabilities

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The Suburbanization of Transport Terminals and Freight Distribution Centers

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The suburbanization of transport terminals and freight distribution centers

The Suburbanization of Transport Terminals and Freight Distribution Centers

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue

Dept. of Economics & Geography

Hofstra University

Hempstead, NY

http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/jean-paul_rodrigue/


Outline

Outline

  • Transport in Suburbia: Assets and Liabilities

  • A New Environment for Freight Distribution

  • Factors in the Suburbanization of Freight Distribution Centers

  • Future Freight Distribution


Transport in suburbia assets versus liabilities

Assets (Freight Transport)

Privately owned (profit motivated).

Relatively low entry costs (wages and rates subject to market forces).

Value added function (trade distance for cost).

Support industrial, manufacturing and commercial activities.

Liabilities (Public Transit)

Publicly owned (politically motivated).

Little or no competition permitted (wages and fares regulated).

Social function / “public service” (provides accessibility and social equity).

Limited relationships with economic activities.

Transport in Suburbia: Assets versus Liabilities


A new environment for freight distribution

A New Environment for Freight Distribution

  • Globalization and commodification

    • Macro-economic changes.

  • From supply-based to demand-based logistics

    • Operational changes.

  • Changes in the urban spatial structure

    • Spatial changes.


Globalization and commodification

Globalization and Commodification

  • Longer supply chains

    • International division of the production.

    • Fragmentation of production, distribution and consumption.

  • International trade

    • Imbalanced freight flows.

  • Higher levels of consumption

    • Debt and equity extraction.


From push to pull logistics

From Push to Pull Logistics

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Freight flow

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

3PL

Distributor

Distributor

Customer

Returns / Recycling

Point-of-sale data

Customer

Push

Pull


Changes in the urban spatial structure

Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure

Multi-Nodal

Nodal

Core activities

Peripheral activities

Central area

Central activities

Major transport axis


Factors in the suburbanization of freight distribution centers

Factors in the Suburbanization of Freight Distribution Centers

  • Large-scale Distribution Centers

    • Characteristics and requirements.

  • Cross-docking Systems

    • A just-in-time low/no warehousing distribution system.

  • Freight Corridors & Freight Clusters

    • Servicing a system of urban agglomerations.


Large scale distribution center

Large-scale Distribution Center


Contemporary freight distribution center

Contemporary Freight Distribution Center


Cross docking system

Cross-docking System

Suppliers

Receiving

DC

Sorting

Shipping

Customers


Freight corridors freight clusters

Freight Corridors & Freight Clusters

  • Geographical consequences

    • Migrating to more affordable locations in the periphery.

    • Growth in tons-km.

    • Competition between passengers (commuters) and freight traffic.

  • Freight corridors

    • Expands the sphere of distribution.

    • Providing an axis along which distribution centers can reliably service many locations along the corridor.

  • Emergence of freight clusters

    • Functionally unrelated distribution facilities.

    • Often located in small intermediary locations.

DC


Future freight distribution

Future Freight Distribution

  • Multimodal Integration of Freight Transportation

    • Problem of modal dependence (80% trucking).

    • Specialization of modes, modal shift and freight diversion.

  • Entropy and Energy

    • Maintaining the cohesion and productivity of freight distribution.

    • Growing disorder and energy costs.

  • Urban/Suburban Supply Chains

    • Coping with the “last mile”.

    • Difficulties to maintain just-in-time and timely supply.

    • High distribution costs.

    • Adaptation of modes and delivery times.


Toll bridges and roads new york metropolitan area 1000s of vehicles per day

Toll Bridges and Roads, New York Metropolitan Area (1000s of vehicles per day)

Hudson River

Long Island Sound

GWB

300

New Jersey

TNB

Bronx

110

100

LT

100

Manhattan

WSB

Garden State Parkway

TBB

125

80

100

QMT

Long Island

HT

Queens

60

BBT

20

20

75

BYB

CBB

Brooklyn

GTB

210

NJ Turnpike

VZB

20

Staten Island

MPB

Lower New York Bay

75

Raritan Bay

OCB


Average hourly traffic on george washington bridge 2002

Average Hourly Traffic on George Washington Bridge, 2002


Truck freight corridors

Truck Freight Corridors

New York

New Jersey

TZB

Connecticut

8.4

23.2

7.8

7.4

GWB

Bronx

8.6

5.2

TBB

TNB

LT

5.7

WSB

Manhattan

LGA

Long Island

QMT

HT

Queens

EWR

BBT

4.2

1.9

GTB

BYB

6.4

Brooklyn

JFK

VZB

Staten Island

8.4

1.5

Major Crossing

OCB

1,000 of Trucks per Day (2000)

4.8

2.0

About 70 million truck crossings per year


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