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Standardized Sampling for Detection and Monitoring of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests prepared by Dr. Scott Costa, University of Vermont. Presentation Goals. Introduce Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) Train HWA samplers. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae.

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Standardized Sampling for Detection and Monitoring of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

prepared by Dr. Scott Costa, University of Vermont


Presentation goals
Presentation Goals Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Introduce Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA)

  • Train HWA samplers


Hemlock woolly adelgid adelges tsugae
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests Adelges tsugae

  • Invasive Species

  • No Effective Natural Predators or Diseases

  • Explosive Population Outbreaks

  • Tree Death Shortly Follows


Consequences of hemlock loss
Consequences of Hemlock Loss Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Hemlock is Important

  • Protects Riparian Zones

    • Water quality

    • Water temperature

  • Provides Animal Habitat

  • Replaced By

    • Invasive plants

    • Less desirable trees

  • Poor Stand Recovery

    • Short-lived seeds


HWA Lifecycle – Explosive Population Growth Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • 2 generations/yr

  • 100+ eggs/adult

  • Crawlers crawl!

  • Nymph and adults immobile

  • Winged adult dead-end


Very small in summer
Very Small in Summer Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

And very hard to see!


A woolly eggmass uncovered
A Woolly Eggmass Uncovered Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Crawlers crawlers everywhere
Crawlers, Crawlers, Everywhere! Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Abundant

  • Very Mobile

  • Nearly Invisible


Abundant populations develop quickly
Abundant Populations Develop Quickly Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


The ultimate consequence
THE ULTIMATE CONSEQUENCE Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


How do hwa spread
How do HWA Spread? Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Human Activity

    • Nursery crops

    • Hemlock logs

  • Natural

    • Wind dispersed

    • Animals: Birds, deer and small mammals


How can we find HWA? Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


The sampling plan
The Sampling Plan Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Monitor spread and level of infestation

  • Decision making for management action

  • Assess management success

  • Research tool


A good plan
A Good Plan Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Simple to Use

  • Practical and Efficient

  • Has Defined Reliability


Specific goals for sampling hwa within a stand
Specific Goals for Sampling HWA Within a Stand Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Detection – Are they out there?

  • Characterization – What is the level of infestation?


Sample lower branches
Sample Lower Branches Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Inefficient to sample above ground level

  • Data indicates lower branches are suitable


COUNTING IS NOT PRACTICAL Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Woolly Masses - Present or Absent Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Presence or Absence Sampling Plan Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Presence or Absence

White Woolly Masses

Lower Branches

NOT Tree Condition


Hemlock woolly adelgid sampling plan
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests Sampling Plan

  • Examine 2 branches on up to 100 trees.

  • HWA can be detected with 75 % reliability when > 2 % infested trees.

  • Efficient determination of % trees infested using defined precision (0.25).


The Hemlock Stand Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests Limited stand information requiredStands 10 acres or more, but smaller OK tooStronger Hemlock component is better


Where to sample on trees
Where to Sample on Trees Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • 2 Branches you can reach

  • Underside of last 1 meter

  • Ignore foliage quality

  • Base of needles – follow twigs


What to look for
What to Look For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Any evidence of woolly masses

    • Large egg sacks

    • Immature HWA

    • Scars of woolly masses

  • No counting

  • Not the typical HWA picture – initially have fewer HWA


The typical photo not what you typically see
The Typical Photo Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests NOT what you typically see


Search Image is Everything Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Woolly masses Pop out at you Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Older ragged wool
Older, Ragged Wool Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Rapidly Scan Along Twigs Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Lighting is important
Lighting is Important Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


If it doesn t look like hwa it probably isn t hwa

Spittle Bugs Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Caterpillar Webbing

Scale Insects

Spider Webbing

Mite Webbing

Only at base of needles, usually

Only on underside, usually

If it doesn’t look like HWA it probably isn’t HWA

Bag Questionable Samples Especially in Low density Areas


Spittle bug
Spittle Bug Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Spider egg sacks
Spider Egg Sacks Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Scale insect floss
Scale Insect Floss Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Pine Aphid Wool Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Drops of Pine Sap

Oak Skeletonizer

Spider Egg Sack


How to sample
How to Sample Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Pick 4 general areas to sample (blocks)

  • Go into first block and pick a tree

  • Examine 2 branches (1 meter long end)

  • Limit your observation time (<1 min.)

  • Put results on survey sheet

  • Go to next tree and sample

    • Head in random cardinal direction

    • Go roughly 25 (2 step) paces

  • Go to next tree >>>>> Next Block


THE LAW Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Once you find ONE HWA on a tree, you are done with that tree!


Semi random cardinal path
Semi-random Cardinal Path Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

N


Sampling path flexibility
Sampling Path Flexibility Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Straight line vectors

  • Zigzag vectors

  • “W” paths

  • Any tree you can find paths

  • Object is to get a representative sample by moving through the stand


How many trees get sampled
How Many Trees Get Sampled Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Detection – Sample until you find HWA or 100 trees, whichever comes first.

  • Characterization % trees infested – 8 to 100 trees depending on infestation.

  • Stop thresholds on data sheet.


Limits of minimum detection
Limits of Minimum Detection Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


When to sample
When to Sample? Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Summer Sisten

Difficult to Detect


How Long Does it Take? Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests


Faq s

Stand is long and narrow Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

A lake in path!

25 (2 step) paces and no tree

Low foliage quality

The stand ended

No opposite branch

Blocks overlapped

Why avoid summer

Stopped sampling before threshold

What if HWA dead

What if I’m wrong

FAQ’s


Stay safe

Use a Compass Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

Bug Repellant

Water and Snack

Dress Properly

Be Smart

No heroes

Know your limits

Sample together

Stay Safe


Forest training practice in hwa infested stand
Forest Training Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests Practice in HWA Infested Stand

  • Raises Questions

  • Builds Confidence

  • Develops Proficiency

  • Fosters Consistency


Hope for hemlock s future biological pest management
Hope for Hemlock’s future! Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests Biological Pest Management

  • Insect-killing Fungi

    • Lecanicillium muscarium

  • Predators

    • Sasajiscymnus tsugae: Japan

    • Laricobius derodontid: British Columbia

    • Scymnus lady beetles: China


Sampling plan development
Sampling Plan Development Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern Hemlock Forests

  • Developed by Scott Costa, Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont

  • Research support from Joe Brown and the Harvard Forest Summer Ecology Internship

  • In collaboration with Bradley Onken, USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

  • With support and funding from USDA-Forest Service Northeastern Area


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