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Sick buildings. Diagnosis and treatment 7y790. MAC. The maximally allowed concentration (MAC) of a gaseous substance is that concentration in the air of a working environment that in general According to current knowledge; Even at repeated and long-term exposure;

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sick buildings

Sick buildings

Diagnosis and treatment

7y790

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

slide2
MAC

The maximally allowed concentration (MAC) of a gaseous substance is that concentration in the air of a working environment that in general

  • According to current knowledge;
  • Even at repeated and long-term exposure;
  • During the full working life;

will not harm the health of workers nor that of their descendants

[Nationale MAC-commissie 1978]

MAC-TGG = tijdgewogen gemiddelde / time weighted mean

MAC-C = peak concentration

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

some general hygienic limits
Some general hygienic limits

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

health damage buildings
Health damage & buildings
  • Sick building syndrome (SBS) = occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that are linked to time spent in a building; no specific illness or cause can be identified
  • Building related illness (BRI) = occupant shows symptoms of diagnosable illness that can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants

Source: Environmental Protection Agency USA: http://epa.gov/iaq/pubs/sbs.html

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

slide5

Sick Building Syndrome

a collection of certain specific complaints and symptoms experienced by workers during or after a stay in certain building spaces

Source: E Eyskens, L Feenstra, AE Meinders (eds) 1991. Codex Medicus. Elsevier,

Amsterdam. ISBN 90-6228-183-4

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

sick building symptoms
Sick Building Symptoms
  • Dry eyes
  • Dry throat
  • Headache
  • Dry skin
  • Mucous membrane irritation
  • Lethargy
  • Asthmatic symptoms

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

additive effects
Additive effects

Example: Pollution by a Laser printer

C = Concentration in the Air;

MAC = MAC value:

Ozon: 0.1 ppm; Carbon monoxide: 25 ppm; airborne dust (stof) 0.05 mg / m3 air

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

slide8

A Sick Building

  • forms an environment that adheres to relevant standards but does not fully answer to the human need for:
  • - Absence ofPathogens
  • - Absence of other biotic, chemical or physicalPollutants
  • - ThermalComfort
  • LightingComfort
  • AcousticComfort
  • - SufficientSpace, Privacy, Peace and Quiet
  • Contactwith outdoors (view, sound, smell, air quality)
  • Source: PA Vroon 1991. Ziekmakende Gebouwen en de evolutie van de mens.
  • Bouwfysica 2(2):18-25; E Eyskens, L Feenstra, AE Meinders (eds) 1991.
  • Codex Medicus. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 90-6228-183-4

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

slide9

A Healthy Building

forms an environment that

- Has a Low Risk for negative health effects

- Makes Healthy Behaviour self-evident

- Compensates for disease or infirmity present

- Stimulates users to realise their ambitions

- Leaves Users Master of the situation

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

slide10

Building Assessment

Building-in-use method = repeated questionnaires

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

general measurements
“General” measurements
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Water vapour
  • Airborne dust
  • Pay attention to the following:
  • Peak values may be more important than averages
  • Measure continuously for 7-10 days
  • Measure outdoor and indoor concurrently
  • Combine physical values with a complaint diary

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

building services design also for dwellings
Building services design(also for dwellings)
  • Robust
  • Locus of control = user
  • Automated when desired by user
  • Sensors for CO, CO2, energy use, ….
  • Automated safety actions always with explanation to the users
  • Action options for the user

JEMH van Bronswijk TU/e

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