Chapter 11
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Chapter 11. Experiments and Test Markets. Learning Objectives. Understand . . . uses for experimentation advantages and disadvantages of the experimental method seven steps of a well-planned experiment internal and external validity with experimental research designs.

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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

Experiments and

Test Markets


Learning Objectives

Understand . . .

  • uses for experimentation

  • advantages and disadvantages of the experimental method

  • seven steps of a well-planned experiment

  • internal and external validity with experimental research designs


Learning Objectives

  • three types of experimental designs and the variations of each

  • functions and types of test marketing used in experimenting with new marketing products and services


Causal Evidence

Agreement between

IVs and DVs

Time order of occurrence

Extraneous variables

did not influence DVs


Advantages

Ability to manipulate IV

Use of control group

Control of extraneous variables

Replication possible

Field experiments possible

Disadvantages

Artificiality of labs

Non-representative sample

Expense

Focus on present and immediate future

Ethical limitations

Evaluation of Experiments


Exhibit 11-1 Experimentation in the Research Process


Conducting an Experiment

Specify treatment levels

Specify treatment levels

Control environment

Choose experimental design

Select and assign participants

Pilot-test, revise, and test

Collect data

Analyze data


Exhibit 11-2 Experiment of Placement of Benefits Module


Selecting and Assigning Participants

Random

assignment

Matching


Random Assignment


Exhibit 11-3 Quota Matrix Example


Observation

Physiological

measures

Paper-and-pencil tests

Scaling techniques

Self-administered instruments

Measurement Options

Options


Validity in Experimentation

Internal

External


Maturation

History

Testing

Experimental

mortality

Statistical

regression

Instrumentation

Selection

Threats to Internal Validity

Threats


Additional Threats to Internal Validity

Diffusion of treatment

Compensatory equalization

Compensatory rivalry

Resentful disadvantaged

Local history


Threats to External Validity

Reactivity of

testing on X

Interaction of

selection and X

Other

reactive factors


Experimental Research Designs

Pre-experiments

True experiments

Field experiments


After-Only Case Study

X O

Pre-experiment


One Group Pretest-Posttest Design

O1X O2

Pre-experiment


Static Group Comparison

X O1

O2

Pre-experiment


Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design

RO1XO2

RO3O4

True experiment


Posttest-Only Control Group Design

RXO1

RO2

True experiment


Nonequivalent Control Group Design

O1XO2

O3O4

Field experiment


Separate Sample Pretest-Posttest Design

RO1(X)

R XO2

Field experiment


Group Time Series Design

R O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6

R O7 O8 O9 O10 O11 O12

Field experiment


Over-testing

Control of distribution

Representative

Multiple locations

Isolation

Media coverage

Test Market Selection

Criteria


Types of Test Markets

Standard

Controlled

Electronic

Simulated

Virtual

Web-enabled


Exhibit 11-5 Test Market Cities


Blind

Control group

Controlled test market

Dependent variable

Double-blind

Environmental control

Experiment

Experimental treatment

External validity

Field experiment

Hypothesis

Independent variable

Internal validity

Key Terms


Matching

Operationalized

Quota matrix

Random assignment

Replication

Test market

Electronic test market

Simulated test market

Standard test market

Virtual test market

Treatment levels

Web-enabled test market

Key Terms


Exhibit 11-6


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