The making of the esdp strategic context and actors
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The making of the ESDP: strategic context and actors. The European defense integration in the cold war. European security community plans- the Dunkirk Treaty 1947/ Brussels Treaty 1948 The Atlantic Alliance 1949

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The european defense integration in the cold war
The European defense integration in the cold war

  • European security community plans- the Dunkirk Treaty 1947/ Brussels Treaty 1948

  • The Atlantic Alliance 1949

  • The two pillars structure- the European divisions (Atlanticist and Europeanists, US hegemony or pooling of sovereignty) and American ambivalence (burden sharing and hegemony)

  • The transatlantic debate


Nato s post cold war revival
NATO’s post cold war revival

J. Howorth (2000)

  • Availability of military force when combat forces were needed

  • The alternative plans- CSCE/ OSCE and WEU

  • The reality of war

  • The French rapprochement with NATO

  • The role of the CEECs


Cfsp the alternative european security narrative
CFSP- the alternative European security narrative

  • 1991-1994 the French blueprint based on WEU: the assessment of the new strategic environment; the role of NATO; the place of the CEECs

  • Mitterrand and Kohl letter to the Irish Presidency (1990)

  • The Key Largo Summit (1990)

  • The NATO London Summit

  • The Gulf war

  • The launch of Eurocorps in 1991

  • The WEU role in the Yugoslav crisis

  • Bilateral initiatives


The us position
The US position

  • The position of the Congress and the executive branch of government

  • The ‘yes…, but’ (Sloan) position

  • Any attempt to replace, displace or subvert NATO will be resisted

  • European capabilities within the Atlantic framework will be welcomed

  • Resurgence of the burden-sharing debate


From esdi to cesdp the second half of the 1990s
From ESDI to CESDP- the second half of the 1990s

  • ESDI- technical- military arrangements and the political message: the NAC in Brussels 1994 and the NAC in Berlin 1996

  • The US swings between isolationism and burden-sharing

  • Transatlantic tensions: placement of military HQs; Albania and Kosovo; the CEECs

  • Intra-European tensions- the 1996 IGC and Amsterdam

  • July 1998 the Portschach Summit

  • December 1998 St. Malo


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