On Nouns and nominalisations . Lise Fontaine Cardiff University How Does Language W ork? Aston University June 2013. Objectives and outline. Aim: to explain the main function and structure of nouns and to understand how we can recognise each one. Outline:
Aim: to explain the main function and structure of nouns and to understand how we can recognise each one.
Identifying nouns, verbs etc. is only a small part of the picture. Only asking for a label for an item doesn’t build understanding.It’s open to interpretation
a2 + b2 = c2
Every ‘phrase’ used is doing a job
Can I friend you on Facebook?
People can't friend request me on facebook? Like if they go to my profile there is no button that says "add as friend".
If I turned on followers does it turn off friending capabilities?
It's easy to drop your guard while socializing with your friends on Facebook, but careless friending, posting, liking, and sharing jeopardizes more than just your reputation and privacy -- it can also cost you your job.
Noun = person place or thing
Verb = action word
Kick, eat, pick, draw, write, sit, run, drive, …
Think, understand, like, love, learn, see, …
Have, be, …
Spill the beans, kick the bucket, let the cat out of the bag, …
(1) The cat is killing that poor moth.
(2) Killing moths is illegal.
(3) The killing of moths is illegal.
I’m suggesting we need to develop a level of ‘dexterity’ when it comes to words and grammar.
Shooting accident involving Dick Cheney (02/2006).
Was alcohol involved?
I am unaware the hunting party had had any alcohol.
There was no consumption of alcohol in the field
To the best of my knowledge there was no alcohol involved
No alcohol was consumed in the field
“Categorization is not a matter to be taken lightly.
There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech. Every time we see something as a kind of thing. For example, a tree, we are categorizing. Whenever we reason aboutkinds of things - chairs, nations, illnesses, emotions, any kind of thing at all - we are employing categories.”
Lakoff, G. (1987) Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. University of Chicago Press p5-6
e.g. dog, house, chair, book, child, …
e.g. love, hate, love, illness, …
the cat near the bed
I will adopt __________________ . [participating entities]
e.g. My friendvs my colleaguevs my sister
e.g. police station, garden hose, steam train
e.g. my friend, John
e.g. a cup of coffee, a bunch of flowers
“Describing a sentence as a construction of words is rather like describing a house as a construction of bricks, without recognizing the walls and the rooms as intermediate structural units”.
ENRAGED COW INJURES FARMER WITH AX
Tools and resources are needed to manipulate language so that it reveals its nature to us (dexterity)
PRONOUNS do not replace NOUNS, they replace the PHRASE
The noun phrase (nominal group) is the main grammatical resource for introducing and maintaining participants in language
Ngp → (d)* (m)* th (q)*
(determiner), (modifier), thing, (qualifier)
by the bed
the black cat by the bediscute
by the bed
that I boughtyesterday