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Basic Organic Nomenclature and Functional Groups ( Chapter 16 ). Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen Alkanes contain only single bonds Alkenes contain at least one double bond Alkynes contain at least one triple bond.

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Basic Organic Nomenclature and Functional Groups ( Chapter 16 )

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Basic Organic Nomenclatureand Functional Groups

(Chapter 16)


Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen


  • Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen

    • Alkanes contain only single bonds

    • Alkenes contain at least one double bond

    • Alkynes contain at least one triple bond


  • Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen

    • Alkanes contain only single bonds

    • Alkenes contain at least one double bond

    • Alkynes contain at least one triple bond

  • General Formulas:

    • Alkanes = CnH2n+2

    • Alkenes = CnH2n

    • Alkynes = CnH2n-2


Hydrocarbons Nomenclature:


  • Hydrocarbons Nomenclature:

  • Two part names:

    • Prefix based on the number of carbon atoms in the chain

    • Suffix based on alkane, alkene, or alkyne


  • Hydrocarbons Nomenclature:

  • Two part names:

    • Prefix based on the number of carbon atoms in the chain

    • Suffix based on alkane, alkene, or alkyne

  • Memorize these prefixes, in order:

1 – Meth

2 – Eth

3 – Prop

4 – But

5 – Pent

6 – Hex

7 – Hept

8 – Oct

9 – Non

10 – Dec


Meth + ane, ene, yne

Methane:

Methene: does not exist

Methyne: does not exist


Eth + ane, ene, yne

Ethane:

Ethene:

Ethyne:


Prop + ane, ene, yne

Propane:

Propene:

Propyne:


But + ane, ene, yne

Butane:

Butene:

Butyne:


Pent + ane, ene, yne

Pentane:

Pentene:

Pentyne:


Hex + ane, ene, yne

Hexane:

Hexene:

Hexyne:


Hept + ane, ene, yne

Heptane:

Heptene:

Heptyne:


Oct + ane, ene, yne

Octane:

Octene:

Octyne:


Non + ane, ene, yne

Nonane:

Nonene:

Nonyne:


Dec + ane, ene, yne

Decane:

Decene:

Decyne:


  • Functional Groups:

    • Common groups of elements added to hydrocarbons that change their chemistry

    • Can be added on the end or interior

    • Names are changed to reflect the functional group(s)


  • Cyclo-hydrocarbons

    • Carbons are in a ring

    • lowers expected C:H ratio by 2 hydrogens

  • Cyclohexane:Cyclohexene:

  • 1, 3, 5 cyclohexene :

  • Or benzene or phenyl


  • Alcohols: have a hydroxide functional group

    • Usually on the end, but doesn’t have to be

    • Name ends in “ol”

  • Ethanol:


  • Amines: contain nitrogen inside or on the end of the carbon chain

    • N can form up to 3 bonds, so either there is 1 chain and 2 H, 2 chains and 1 H, or 3 chains

    • The suffix “amine” is added

    • If there chains, the nitrogen is counted as being attached to the longest chain, and an italic N is used to show the shorter chains are attached to the nitrogen

    • If the N is inside a single chain, an infixed number is used


Methanamine:

Butan-2-amine:

N-methylethanamine:


  • Carboxylic acids: an end carbon is double bonded to O and to hydroxide

    • The carbonyl carbon counts as part of the chain

    • The suffix “ioc acid” is added

    • Can have one on each end of a chain, but naming that is beyond the scope of AP (especially if there are several branches)

  • Ethanioc Acid:

  • (Acetic Acid)


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