Forecasting Ocean Waves. Problem: Given observed or expected weather, what will be the sea state? Ships are sunk not by winds, but by waves!. Definitions. Period (T) - The time for one complete cycle of a process, e.g., the time between wave crests at a point.
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Problem: Given observed or expected weather, what will be the sea state?
Ships are sunk not by winds, but by waves!
E ~ .25 (U/10)5 (U in knots); H1/3 ~ 2.8 (E)1/2
Speed Minimum Fetch Minimum Duration
30 kts. 280 nt. mi. 23 hours
40 710 42
50 1420 69
Large, breaking waves can occur in situations where wavetrains from different directions are interfering with one another. Result: chaotic seas and large variations in wave heights with highly intermittent wave breaking possible. Example: The sinking of the Arctic Rose
Wind Waves and Swell
due to ESE 35
Swell due to
Garbage In, Garbage Out!