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统计基础知识及法律法规 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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统计基础知识及法律法规. 四川省统计局. 统计的涵义. 1. 第一篇 统计基础知识. 一、统计基本概念. 1 、 统计的涵义. 统计 : 对社会经济现象数量方面的调查研究,主要从 数量 方面来描述社会经济现象。. 漫话统计. 漫话统计. 漫话统计. 曾有一位资深的海外统计学家说过: “统计就和柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶一样,存在的时候并不是很突出,一旦不见了,人生就是黑白的了。”. 曾有一位资深的海外统计学家说过: “统计就和柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶一样,存在的时候并不是很突出,一旦不见了,人生就是黑白的了。”. 曾有一位资深的海外统计学家说过:

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统计基础知识及法律法规

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2

1

  • (1_1) ,


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2


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2

4

  • +

  • 200510


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2

4

5


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3


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3


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3


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3


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3


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4.

Xf(x)

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fx

4.

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COD=/COD

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4.

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(arithmetic mean)

34


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1-1

1-2

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1-3

xk 2

fiik

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3 SO2

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(geometric mean, G)

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0kx+k0G=G-k

G= - G

k(k10100)G=G/k

kx+k0G=G-k

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1-3

1-4

G

n

x

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5121418116132

G =-1(0.903) = 8

518

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(Harmonic Mean)

42


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  • N

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12252425272625242826252628

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(median, M, Md)

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(median, M, Md)

n

1-5

n

n

1-6

M

n

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8BODmg/L5053.5 5153.552555853

8

5051525353.553.55558

n=8M=(X4+X5)/2=(53+53.5)/2=53.25 mg/L

8BOD53.25 mg/L

49


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50


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(variance)

(Standard Deviation)

AB6A958575655545B73727169686770A17.08B2.16AB

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1-7

1-8

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1-91-10

1-9

1-10

53


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BOD516 18 202224 mg/LBOD5

1-61-7

54


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1-111-12

(1-11)

(1-12)

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SO21-1

1-1 so2

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1-9

SO2

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4101-2

1-2

58


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()

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gauss

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X

1-1

1-1

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f(X)

X

m

  • X

  • 1

1-2

63


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1-3

64


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=0,=1 N(0,1)

:N(m,s2)

N(0,1)

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68.27%

95.00%

99.00%

1

1.96

2.58

-2.58

-1.96

-1

0

1-4

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1-5

1-6

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68


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69


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COD=/CODExcel

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1-7 COD

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72


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1-8 COD

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1-9

74


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()3() (-3+3)

spss

75


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EXCEL


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2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.1

:

77


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2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.2

1

78


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2.1

2.1.1

2

2000

2007

2000

2006

2007

2009

79


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2.1

2.1.1

3

1995

2009

80


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2.1

2.1.1

4

1999

1989

1996

1996

2009

81


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2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.3

82


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2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.3

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2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.1

84


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2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.1

:

85


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2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.2

1

86


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2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.2

2

3

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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.1

1

2

3

4

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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

1

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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

1011231

90


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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

2

92


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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

93


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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

94


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2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

95


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.1

18141814

96


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

1

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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

2

1

20048 1-719468.572815198.6828

2004105

98


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

2

2

2005147315

99


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

3

319974

100


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

4

104


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2.2

4

19953 199511121**8500

105


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

5

5

20072006200762007

106


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

6

7

8

107


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2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

9

10

11

12

13

108


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2.2

6

20056

109


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2.2

2.2.2

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2.2

2.2.2

2.2.2.1

111


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2.2

2.2.2.1

1

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2.2

2.2.2.1

1

7

200620072

113


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2.2

2.2.2.1

2

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2.2

2.2.2.1

2

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2.2

2.2.2.1

8

20003

116


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2.2

2.2.2

2.2.2.2

31,

1

2

3

4

5

6

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2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.1

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2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.2

1

2

3

4

5

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2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.2

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

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2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.3

121


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3-1

122


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2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.4

123


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1.

2.

1.

2.

3.

1.

2.()

3.

1

2.

3.3%

1.

2.

3-2

124


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9

200121811591

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2.3

2.3.1

1,

2

3

4

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2.3

2.3.2

29

127


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