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统计基础知识及法律法规 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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统计基础知识及法律法规. 四川省统计局. 统计的涵义. 1. 第一篇 统计基础知识. 一、统计基本概念. 1 、 统计的涵义. 统计 : 对社会经济现象数量方面的调查研究,主要从 数量 方面来描述社会经济现象。. 漫话统计. 漫话统计. 漫话统计. 曾有一位资深的海外统计学家说过: “统计就和柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶一样,存在的时候并不是很突出,一旦不见了,人生就是黑白的了。”. 曾有一位资深的海外统计学家说过: “统计就和柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶一样,存在的时候并不是很突出,一旦不见了,人生就是黑白的了。”. 曾有一位资深的海外统计学家说过:

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统计基础知识及法律法规

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1


1

  • :



1.


1


7



2


2

1

2

3

4


2

1

  • (1_1) ,


2

2


2


2

3


2

4

  • +

  • 200510


2


2


2


1

3

2

4


1

  • 1

  • 2



2

1

2


2

3


2

4

5


3


3


3


3


3


4.

Xf(x)

30


fx

4.

31


COD=/COD

32


4.

33


(arithmetic mean)

34


1-1

1-2

35


1-3

xk 2

fiik

36


3 SO2

37


(geometric mean, G)

38


0kx+k0G=G-k

G= - G

k(k10100)G=G/k

kx+k0G=G-k

39


1-3

1-4

G

n

x

40


5121418116132

G =-1(0.903) = 8

518

41


(Harmonic Mean)

42


  • N

43


12252425272625242826252628

44


45


46


(median, M, Md)

47


(median, M, Md)

n

1-5

n

n

1-6

M

n

48


8BODmg/L5053.5 5153.552555853

8

5051525353.553.55558

n=8M=(X4+X5)/2=(53+53.5)/2=53.25 mg/L

8BOD53.25 mg/L

49


50


(variance)

(Standard Deviation)

AB6A958575655545B73727169686770A17.08B2.16AB

51


1-7

1-8

52


1-91-10

1-9

1-10

53


BOD516 18 202224 mg/LBOD5

1-61-7

54


1-111-12

(1-11)

(1-12)

55


SO21-1

1-1 so2

56


1-9

SO2

57


4101-2

1-2

58


59


()

60


gauss

61


X

1-1

1-1

62


f(X)

X

m

  • X

  • 1

1-2

63


1-3

64


=0,=1 N(0,1)

:N(m,s2)

N(0,1)

65


68.27%

95.00%

99.00%

1

1.96

2.58

-2.58

-1.96

-1

0

1-4

66


1-5

1-6

67


68


69


COD=/CODExcel

70


1-7 COD

71


72


1-8 COD

73


1-9

74


()3() (-3+3)

spss

75


EXCEL


2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.1

:

77


2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.2

1

78


2.1

2.1.1

2

2000

2007

2000

2006

2007

2009

79


2.1

2.1.1

3

1995

2009

80


2.1

2.1.1

4

1999

1989

1996

1996

2009

81


2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.3

82


2.1

2.1.1

2.1.1.3

83


2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.1

84


2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.1

:

85


2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.2

1

86


2.1

2.1.2

2.1.2.2

2

3

87


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.1

1

2

3

4

88


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

1

89


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

1011231

90


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

91


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

2

92


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

93


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

94


2.1

2.1.3

2.1.3.2

95


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.1

18141814

96


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

1

97


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

2

1

20048 1-719468.572815198.6828

2004105

98


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

2

2

2005147315

99


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

3

319974

100





2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

4

104


2.2

4

19953 199511121**8500

105


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

5

5

20072006200762007

106


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

6

7

8

107


2.2

2.2.1

2.2.1.2

9

10

11

12

13

108


2.2

6

20056

109


2.2

2.2.2

110


2.2

2.2.2

2.2.2.1

111


2.2

2.2.2.1

1

112


2.2

2.2.2.1

1

7

200620072

113


2.2

2.2.2.1

2

114


2.2

2.2.2.1

2

115


2.2

2.2.2.1

8

20003

116


2.2

2.2.2

2.2.2.2

31,

1

2

3

4

5

6

117


2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.1

118


2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.2

1

2

3

4

5

119


2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.2

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

120


2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.3

121


3-1

122


2.2

2.2.3

2.2.3.4

123


1.

2.

1.

2.

3.

1.

2.()

3.

1

2.

3.3%

1.

2.

3-2

124


9

200121811591

125


2.3

2.3.1

1,

2

3

4

126


2.3

2.3.2

29

127




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