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Basic radio frequency communications - 2. Session 1. Contents. Basic security concepts Attacks against wireless networks Wireless technologies Classification according to the range. Basic security concepts. Vulnerability

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  • Basic security concepts
  • Attacks against wireless networks
  • Wireless technologies
  • Classification according to the range
basic security concepts
Basic security concepts
  • Vulnerability
    • An inherent weakness in the design, configuration, implementation of a network or system
    • This can take any form and can be intentional, accidental, or simply an act of nature
  • Threat
    • Any possible event that can disrupt the operation, functioning, integrity, or availability of a network or system
basic security concepts1
Basic security concepts
  • Attack
    • A specific technique used to exploit a vulnerability
  • Example
    • A threat could be a denial of service
    • A vulnerability is in the design of a communication system
    • An attack could be jamming
basic security concepts2
Basic security concepts
  • Confidentiality
    • Providing confidentiality means hiding the information from an unauthorized third party
  • Integrity
    • Ensuring data integrity means protecting data from being modified without authorization
  • Availability
    • The wireless network should be always available to be used
basic security concepts3
Basic security concepts
  • Privacy
    • Ensuring privacy means hiding the user identity, location or service usage
  • Authentication
    • Process that ensures that only legitimate users (possessing certain credentials) can access the wireless network
basic security concepts4
Basic security concepts
  • Access Control
    • Process that grants a legitimate user access to certain information that he/she is allowed to access
  • Non-repudiation
    • Activities that prevent users from denying the use of wireless networks
attacks against wireless networks
Attacks against wireless networks
  • Passive attacks (1)
    • Channel eavesdropping
      • An attacker can place an antenna to hear the information between the victim transmitter and receiver
    • Channel overuse
      • The radio spectrum is a shared resource
      • A wireless operator or a user may make an excessive use of the radio spectrum and prevent others from accessing it
attacks against wireless networks1
Attacks against wireless networks
  • Passive attacks (2)
    • Traffic analysis
      • An analysis that shows characteristics of the traffic, e.g. how frequently the communication takes place
  • Active attacks (1)
    • Channel jamming
      • Part of denial of service attacks
      • Performed by transmitting at the same time in the same communication channel as the victim
attacks against wireless networks2
Attacks against wireless networks
  • Active attacks (2)
    • Identity cheat
      • An attacker impersonates a legitimate user in the wireless networks
    • Spoofing
      • An attacker retrieves data and sends other data to the victim user
    • Data alteration
      • An attacker modifies the content of the information
attacks against wireless networks4
Attacks against wireless networks
  • Specific vulnerabilities of wireless networks regarding mobility, i.e. the fact that a device can roam across different wireless networks and network operators (1)
    • Privacy of a user is threatened
    • Mobile device is small
      • Limited storage, computing power and energy
      • Strong protection measures (e.g. strong cryptography) are difficult to implement
attacks against wireless networks5
Attacks against wireless networks
  • Specific vulnerabilities of wireless networks regarding mobility, i.e. the fact that a device can roam across different wireless networks and network operators (2)
    • Mobile device can be easily stolen
      • This may lead to misuse and reverse engineering
wireless technologies
Wireless technologies
  • RFID
  • Personal networks
    • Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1)
    • ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4)
  • Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11)
  • Cellular networks
    • GSM
    • UMTS (3G)
wireless technologies1
Wireless technologies
  • Wireless mesh networks
  • Mobile ad hoc networks
  • Hybrid ad hoc networks
  • Vehicular networks
  • Sensor networks
  • Integrated networks
  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
    • Serves for automatic and secure reading of an ID-number
    • There are also RFID devices capable of storing data – wireless memory (e.g. electronic passports)
  • Applications (
    • Logistics
    • Ticketing
    • Transport (e.g. Autopass), etc.
  • Operation
    • An RFID tag is mounted on the object to be identified
      • The tag consists of a chip and an antenna
      • Energy needed for operation of the tag is (usually) received from the reader – a radio transmitter
    • When the tag finds itself in the field of the reader’s radio signal, it transmits an echo
    • The echo is checked in the reader’s database and thus the object is identified.
personal networks
Personal networks
  • Bluetooth
    • A short-range communications system intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed electronic devices.
    • The system offers services that enable the connection of devices and the exchange of data between these devices.
personal networks2
Personal networks
  • ZigBee
    • A short-range communication system intended to facilitate communication between various technical devices, tipically home appliances.
    • Simpler messages than Bluetooth
    • More scalable than Bluetooth
wireless lan
Wireless LAN
  • Wireless LAN enables connectivity of computing devices (PCs, laptop, printers, etc.) by means of a radio link
  • Such a connection is transparent for the users
    • There is no logical difference between a wired and a wireless connection.
cellular networks
Cellular networks
  • Cellular network
    • A radio network made up of a number of radio cells, each served by a fixed transmitter, known as a base station.
    • These cells are used to cover different areas in order to provide radio coverage over a wider area than the area of one cell
  • Example
    • Mobile telephony networks (GSM, UMTS)
cellular networks2
Cellular networks
  • Abbreviations (1)
    • SIM – Subscriber Identity Module
    • MS – Mobile Station
    • USIM – Universal Subscriber Identity Module
    • ME – Mobile Equipment
    • TE – Terminal Equipment
    • UE – User Equipment
    • BTS – Base Transceiver Station
    • BSC – Base Station Controller
cellular networks3
Cellular networks
  • Abbreviations (2)
    • Node B – Analogue to BTS in UMTS
    • RNC – Radio Network Controller
    • BSS – Base Station Subsystem
    • RNS – Radio Network Subsystem
    • MSC – Mobile Switching Center
    • GMSC – Gateway MSC
    • SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node
    • GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node
cellular networks4
Cellular networks
  • Abbreviations (3)
    • VLR – Visitor Location Register
    • HLR – Home Location Register
    • EIR – Equipment Identity Register
    • AuC – Authentication Center
    • PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network
    • PLMN – Public Land Mobile Network
wireless mesh networks
Wireless mesh networks
  • Mesh network
    • Data communication through fixed nodes
    • The connectivity allows continued communication even if some of the nodes in the network stop functioning
  • Wireless mesh network
    • Communication between the nodes is wireless
    • Similar to mobile ad hoc networks, but the nodes are in general not mobile.
mobile ad hoc networks manets
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)
  • A self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links
  • Together, they form an arbitrary topology
  • The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily
mobile ad hoc networks manets1
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)
  • The network\'s wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably
  • Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to a larger Internet
hybrid ad hoc networks
Hybrid ad hoc networks
  • A structure-based network that is extended using multi-hop communications
  • The existence of a communication link between the mobile station and the base station is not required
    • A mobile station that has no direct connection with a base station can use other mobile stations as relays.
vehicular networks vanets
Vehicular networks (VANETs)
  • A form of MANET
    • Intended to provide communication among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment (roadside equipment)
  • The main goal
    • providing safety and comfort for passengers
vehicular networks vanets1
Vehicular networks (VANETs)
  • A special electronic device is placed inside each vehicle
    • Provides ad hoc network connectivity for the passengers
  • This network tends to operate without any infrastructure
wireless sensor networks
Wireless sensor networks
  • Spatially distributed autonomous devices
    • Use sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions (temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion, pollutants, etc.) at different locations.
  • In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is equipped with a radio transceiver, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery.
integrated networks
Integrated networks
  • Modern networks often integrate many types of networks, including various types of wireless networks
  • Example
    • Sensor networks and ad hoc networks are often integrated to make a single network
classification according to range
Classification according to range
  • According to the range, wireless networks are classified in the following way
    • Short-range
      • Bluetooth, ZigBee
    • Medium-range
      • WLAN
    • Medium long-range
      • Cellular
    • Long-range
      • Satellite global area networks