The road to the constitution
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The Road to the Constitution. Quick Review. Declaration of Independence Second Continental Congress Approved July 4, 1776 The Articles of Confederation 1777, our first constitution Weak federal government Shay ’ s Rebellion, 1786-1787. Strengthening the National Government. 1787

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Quick review
Quick Review

  • Declaration of Independence

    • Second Continental Congress

    • Approved July 4, 1776

  • The Articles of Confederation

    • 1777, our first constitution

    • Weak federal government

    • Shay’s Rebellion, 1786-1787


Strengthening the national government
Strengthening the National Government

  • 1787

  • Problems with the Articles of Confederation

  • States sent delegates to Philadelphia to fix the A.O.C.

  • Rhode Island did not go…they did not want a stronger central government


The constitutional convention
The Constitutional Convention

  • May 25, 1787

  • Independence Hall, Philadelphia

  • An extraordinary group of men

    • 55 men

    • Well-educated

    • Lawyers, merchants, college presidents, doctors, generals, governors, and planters with considerable political experience


Who was there who missed it
Who was there? Who missed it?

  • Benjamin Franklin

    • 81, oldest delegate

  • George Washington & James Madison

    • Both would become president

  • Thomas Jefferson & John Adams

    • Both were in Europe

  • Patrick Henry

    • Prominent Virginian

    • He was invited but did not attend; he was against the convention


The boss
The Boss

  • Who was chosen to preside over the convention?

  • George Washington

    • Respected for his leadership during the Rev. War

http://richmondthenandnow.com/Images/Famous-Visitors/George-Washington-big.jpg


Procedures of the convention
Procedures of the Convention

  • Each state was only allowed one vote

  • Majority votes from all states made decisions

  • All discussions were a secret! Why…?

    • This way, delegates could speak freely, without worry about how the public would react


Importance of the constitutional convention
Importance of the Constitutional Convention

  • “I would bury my bones in this city rather than leave the Convention without anything being done.”

    -George Mason at the Constitutional Convention

*Everyone knew that failure could mean disaster*


What happened to the
What happened to the…

  • Articles of Confederation???

  • The throw it away, decided to write a new constitution

http://www.uberreview.com/wp-content/uploads/grocery-bag-trash-can.jpg


Two opposing plans
Two Opposing Plans

VS.

Virginia vs. New Jersey

http://www.lva.lib.va.us/whatwehave/map/vamap.jpg

http://www.pestmanagement.rutgers.edu/nj-counties-new.gif


Two opposing plans1
Two Opposing Plans

  • The Virginia Plan

    • James Madison

    • 3 branches of government

    • Bicameral legislature (2 houses), determined by population

    • Favored big states


Two opposing plans2
Two Opposing Plans

  • The New Jersey Plan

  • William Patterson

  • 3 branches of government

  • Unicameral legislature (1 house) with equal representation

  • Favored smaller states


Two opposing plans3
Two Opposing Plans

  • What was the big issue?

  • How representation in Congress would be decided

  • Larger states wanted more power, smaller states wanted equal power


The great compromise
The Great Compromise

  • Roger Sherman of Connecticut comes up with the answer…a compromise

  • Lower House

    • House of Representatives

    • Determined by population

    • 2 year terms

    • Favored larger states

  • Upper House

    • Senate

    • Equal representation

    • 6 year terms

    • Favored smaller states

  • Also known as… The Connecticut Compromise

  • What is a compromise???

  • A way of resolving disagreements in which each side gives up something but gains something else


More arguing what now
More arguing? What now?

  • Controversy over counting slaves as a part of the population…

  • At this time, there were 550,000 enslaved African Americans, mostly in the South


More arguing what now1
More arguing? What now?

  • Southern states said… part of the population = more representatives for southern states

  • Northern states said… slaves cannot vote or participate in government, they should not give the south more representatives


The three fifths compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise

  • The conflict was finally resolved…

  • Three-Fifths Compromise

    • Every 5 enslaved persons would count as 3 free people

    • Used for representation in Congress & figuring taxes


Another compromise
Another compromise

  • How to elect a president?

  • Some say… “Let Congress pick!”

  • Others say… “Let the people choose!”

  • The compromise…


Electoral college
Electoral College

  • A group of people would be chosen by each state to choose the President

  • Each state given a certain number of votes, determined by their representation in Congress


One last compromise
One last compromise

  • Conflicts over commerce & the slave trade

    • Congress could regulate (control) trade between states & other countries

    • However, they could NOT tax exports or interfere with the slave trade for 20 years


Finished finally
Finished…finally!

  • September 17, 1787, finished up the Constitution

  • Delegates signed it, said the Constitution would become the law of the land when…

    • 9 out of 13 states ratified (approved) it



Wrong
Wrong! Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?


A divided public
A Divided Public Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?

  • Some people liked the Constitution, others did not

  • Federalists = supporters of the new constitution & a strong federal government

  • Federalism = A form of government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the states


A divided public1
A Divided Public Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?

  • Some Federalists wrote papers to rally support for the Constitution

  • They were called the Federalist Papers

  • Who wrote ‘em?

    • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay


A divided public2
A Divided Public Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?

  • What about those who didn’t like the Constitution?

  • Anti-Federalists = People opposed to the constitution & a strong federal government

    • “Don’t forget individual rights!”


Reaching an agreement
Reaching an Agreement Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?

  • Anti-Federalists wanted to add…

    • The Bill of Rights

  • The Federalists promised to do so, and did

  • New Hampshire, 9th state to ratify

    • June 21, 1788

    • The Constitution went into effect

  • The last state to ratify…?

    • Rhode Island, 1790


Ticket out the door
Ticket out the door Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?


1. What is Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?a form of government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the states?




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