PERSAMPELAN - DEFINISI DAN TUJUAN
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PERSAMPELAN - DEFINISI DAN TUJUAN PERSAMPELAN ADALAH PROSES PEMILIHAN UNSUR ATAU ELEMEN DARI POPULASI BAGI SESUATU KAJIAN TERTENTU DI MANA ELEMEN INI DAPAT MEWAKILI POPULASI YANG DIKAJI. TUJUAN PERSAMPELAN IALAH UNTUK MENGGUNAKAN SAMPEL BAGI

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PERSAMPELAN - DEFINISI DAN TUJUAN PERSAMPELAN ADALAH PROSES

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Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

  • PERSAMPELAN - DEFINISI DAN TUJUAN

  • PERSAMPELAN ADALAH PROSES

  • PEMILIHAN UNSUR ATAU ELEMEN DARI

  • POPULASI BAGI SESUATU KAJIAN

  • TERTENTU DI MANA ELEMEN INI DAPAT

  • MEWAKILI POPULASI YANG DIKAJI.

  • TUJUAN PERSAMPELAN IALAH UNTUK

  • MENGGUNAKAN SAMPEL BAGI

  • MEDAPATKAN MAKLUMAT (MEMBUAT

  • KESIMPULAN) MENGENAI POPULASI

  • YANG DIKAJI.


Istilah utama persampelan

Istilah Utama Persampelan

  • Sampel

  • Populasi atau universe

  • Unsur Populasi

  • Bancian


Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

Proses

Dalam

Pemilihan

Sampel

Tentukan Sasaran populasi

Pilih Rangka Persampelan

Tentukan Kaedah Persampelan

- Kebarangkaian/ Bukan Kebarangkalian

Pelan Prosedur Pemilihan Unit Persampelan

Tentukan Saiz Sampel

Memilih Unit Persampelan Sebenar

Perlaksanaan


Populasi sasaran

Populasi Sasaran

  • Populasi relevan

  • Ditakrifkan secara operasi


Rangka persampelan

Rangka Persampelan

  • Senarai elemen dimana pemilihan sampel dibuat

  • Populasi untuk di laksanakan

  • Senarai untuk dimelkan --- data base untuk pemasar

  • Ralat rangka persampelan


Unit persampelan

Unit Persampelan

  • Kumpulan yang dipilih untuk disampel

  • Unit Persampelan utama (PSU)

  • Unit persampelan sekunder

  • Unit persampelan peringkat ketiga


Dua jenis atau kategori persampelan

Dua Jenis atau Kategori Persampelan

  • Persampelan kebarangkalian (Probability sampling)

    • Kebanrangkalian atau peluang tiap unsur dipilih adalah diketahui

  • Persampelan Bukan Kebarangkalian (Nonprobability sampling)

    • Kebarangkalian tiap unsur dipilih tidak diketahui


  • Apakah sampel yang baik

    APAKAH SAMPEL YANG BAIK

    • BAGI MEWAKILI CIRI-CIRI POPULASI SAMPEL

    • PERLULAH SAHIH

    • TEPAT - TIDAK WUJUD “BIAS”. TIDAK WUJUD

    • VARIANS PERBEZAAN DENGAN POPULASI

    • SECARA SISTEMATIK (CONDONG KEPADA

    • SATU ARAH )

    • “PRECISION” - RALAT SECARA RAMBANG -

    • RALAT PERSAMPELAN RAMBANG.


    Ralat berkaitan dengan persampelan

    Ralat Berkaitan Dengan Persampelan

    • Ralat Rangka Persampelan

    • Ralat Persampelan Rambang

    • Ralat Tidak-Respons


    Ralat sistematik

    Ralat Sistematik

    • Ralat Bukan Persampelan

    • Sampel tidak mewakili populasi

    • Bukan disebabkan kebarangkalian

    • Disebabkan oleh rekabentuk kajian atau ketdaktepatan perlaksanaan.


    Faktor mempengaruhi keputusan pemilihan rekabentuk persampelan

    FAKTOR MEMPENGARUHI KEPUTUSAN PEMILIHAN REKABENTUK PERSAMPELAN

    • OBJEKTIF KAJIAN -

    • KETEPATAN HASIL KAJIAN

      • DIPERLUKAN (KAJIAN PENEROKAAN

      • KEPADA KAJIAN BERSEBAB).

    • PENYELURUHAN HASIL KAJAIN

    • KECEKAPAN (EFFICIENCY)

    • PENGGUNAAN SUMBER DAN MASA


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    • MAKLUMAT POPULASI TIDAK TERDAPAT

    • HANYA PERSAMPELAN

      BUKAN-KEBARANGKALIAN BOLEH

      DIGUNAKAN.

      (PEMILIHAN-KENDIRI === REPONDEN

      MEMILIH UNTUK DIKAJI)


    Pengertian konsep bagi membantu memaham persampelan kebarangkalian

    PENGERTIAN KONSEP BAGI MEMBANTU MEMAHAM PERSAMPELAN KEBARANGKALIAN

    • RALAT PIAWAIAN MEAN

    • SELANG KEYAKINAN

    • TEOREM HAD MEMUSAT


    Rekabentuk persampelan kebarangkalian

    REKABENTUK PERSAMPELAN KEBARANGKALIAN

    • RAMBANG MUDAH

    • SISTEMATIK

    • BERSTRATA

      • BERKADARAN

      • TIDAK BERKADARAN

    • BERGUGUSAN


    Persampelan bukan kebarangkalian

    Persampelan Bukan Kebarangkalian

    • Mudah (Convenience)

    • Pertimbangan (Judgment)

    • Kuato (Quota)

    • Bertumbuh (Snowball)


    Persampelan bukan kebarangkalian1

    Persampelan Bukan Kebarangkalian

    • Mudah (Convenience)

    • Pertimbangan (Judgment)

    • Kuota (Quota)

    • Bertumbuh (Snowball)


    Rekabentuk persampelan kebarangkalian1

    REKABENTUK PERSAMPELAN KEBARANGKALIAN

    • RAMBANG MUDAH

    • SISTEMATIK

    • BERSTRATA

      • BERKADARAN

      • TIDAK BERKADARAN

    • BERGUGUSAN


    Convenience sampling

    Convenience Sampling

    • Also called haphazard or accidental sampling

    • The sampling procedure of obtaining the people or units that are most conveniently available


    Judgment sampling

    Judgment Sampling

    • Also called purposive sampling

    • An experienced individual selects the sample based on his or her judgment about some appropriate characteristics required of the sample member


    Quota sampling

    Quota Sampling

    • Ensures that the various subgroups in a population are represented on pertinent sample characteristics

    • To the exact extent that the investigators desire

    • It should not be confused with stratified sampling.


    Snowball sampling

    Snowball Sampling

    • A variety of procedures

    • Initial respondents are selected by probability methods

    • Additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents


    Simple random sampling

    Simple Random Sampling

    • A sampling procedure that ensures that each element in the population will have an equal chance of being included in the sample


    Systematic sampling

    Systematic Sampling

    • A simple process

    • Every nth name from the list will be drawn


    Stratified sampling

    Stratified Sampling

    • Probability sample

    • Subsamples are drawn within different strata

    • Each stratum is more or less equal on some characteristic

    • Do not confuse with quota sample


    Cluster sampling

    Cluster Sampling

    • The purpose of cluster sampling is to sample economically while retaining the characteristics of a probability sample.

    • The primary sampling unit is no longer the individual element in the population

    • The primary sampling unit is a larger cluster of elements located in proximity to one another


    Kriteria pemilihan rekabentuk persampelan

    Kriteria Pemilihan Rekabentuk Persampelan

    • Darjah ketepatan

    • Sumber

    • Masa

    • Maklumat mengenai populasi

    • Skop dan kawasan kajian

    • Keperluan analisis statistik


    Persampelan bukan kebarangkalian2

    PERSAMPELAN BUKAN KEBARANGKALIAN

    • Mengapa menggunakan persampelan Bukan Kebarangkalian.

      • Kaedah bukan kebarangkalian dapat memenuhi objektif persampelan dengan memuaskan

      • kos rendah

      • masa terhad

      • Ralat pemilihan dijangkakan lebih rendah

        berbanding dengan sampel rawak

      • Senarai populasi tidak terdapat


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    FAKTOR MEMPENGARUHI SAIZ SAMPEL

    1. KESERAGAMAN UNIT PERSAMPELAN - CONTOH CITARASA PELAJAR LEBIH SERAGAM JIKA DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN PENGGUNA LAIN DALAM KUMPULAN UMUR YANG SAMA.

    2. KEYAKINAN TERHADAP PARAMETER POPULASI. KEYAKINAN MERUJUK KEPADA TAHAP KEPASTIAN OLEH PENYELIDIK BAHAWA MEREKA BENAR-BENAR MENGANGGAR PARAMETER POPULASI SEBENAR- SEPERTI MEAN POPULASI. CONTOH PENYELIDIK ADALAH 95% YAKIN BAHAWA BELIAU BENAR-BENAR MENGUKUR TAHAP KEPUASAN PELAJAR DAN BUKAN KUMPULAN YANG LAIN.


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    3. KEJITUAN (PRECISION) - MERUJUK KEPADA KETEPATAN DALAM MENGANGGAR MEAN POPULASI SEBENAR.

    4. KAEDAH ANALITIKAL - TERDAPAT BEBERAPA TEKNIK ANALITIKAL YANG MENENTUKAN MINIMUM SAIZ SAMPEL YANG DIPERLUKAN.

    5. KEPERLUAN SUMBER - KOS, MASA DAN TENAGA KERJA.


    What does statistics mean

    What does Statistics Mean?

    • Descriptive statistics

      • Number of people

      • Trends in employment

      • Data

    • Inferential statistics

      • Make an inference about a population from a sample


    Population parameter

    Population Parameter

    • Variables in a population

    • Measured characteristics of a population

    • Greek lower-case letters as notation


    Sample statistics

    Sample Statistics

    • Variables in a sample

    • Measures computed from data

    • English letters for notation


    Making data usable

    Making Data Usable

    • Frequency distributions

    • Proportions

    • Central tendency

      • Mean

      • Median

      • Mode

    • Measures of dispersion


    Population mean

    Population Mean


    Sample mean

    Sample Mean


    Measures of dispersion or spread

    Measures of Dispersion or Spread

    • Range

    • Mean absolute deviation

    • Variance

    • Standard deviation


    Low dispersion verses high dispersion

    Low Dispersion Verses High Dispersion

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    Low Dispersion

    Frequency

    150 160 170 180 190 200210

    Value on Variable


    Low dispersion verses high dispersion1

    Low Dispersion Verses High Dispersion

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    High dispersion

    Frequency

    150 160 170 180 190 200210

    Value on Variable


    The variance

    The Variance


    Variance

    Variance


    Sample standard deviation

    Sample Standard Deviation


    Sample standard deviation1

    Sample Standard Deviation


    The normal distribution

    The Normal Distribution

    • Normal curve

    • Bell shaped

    • Almost all of its values are within plus or minus 3 standard deviations

    • I.Q. is an example


    Normal distribution

    Normal Distribution

    MEAN


    Normal distribution1

    Normal Distribution

    13.59%

    13.59%

    34.13%

    34.13%

    2.14%

    2.14%


    Normal curve iq example

    Normal Curve: IQ Example

    70

    145

    85

    115

    100


    Standardized normal distribution

    Standardized Normal Distribution

    • Symetrical about its mean

    • Mean identifies highest point

    • Infinite number of cases - a continuous distribution

    • Area under curve has a probability density = 1.0

    • Mean of zero, standard deviation of 1


    Standard normal curve

    Standard Normal Curve

    • The curve is bell-shaped or symmetrical

    • About 68% of the observations will fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean

    • About 95% of the observations will fall within approximately 2 (1.96) standard deviations of the mean

    • Almost all of the observations will fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean


    A standardized normal curve

    A Standardized Normal Curve

    z

    1

    2

    -2

    -1

    0


    The standardized normal is the distribution of z

    The Standardized Normal is the Distribution of Z

    –z

    +z


    Standardized scores

    Standardized Scores


    Standardized values

    Standardized Values

    • Used to compare an individual value to the population mean in units of the standard deviation


    Linear transformation of any normal variable into a standardized normal variable

    Linear Transformation of Any Normal Variable Into a Standardized Normal Variable

    s

    s

    m

    X

    m

    Sometimes the

    scale is stretched

    Sometimes the

    scale is shrunk

    -2 -1 0 1 2


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    • Population distribution

    • Sample distribution

    • Sampling distribution


    Population distribution

    Population Distribution

    m

    -s

    s

    x


    Sample distribution

    Sample Distribution

    _

    C

    X

    S


    Sampling distribution

    Sampling Distribution


    Standard error of the mean

    Standard Error of the Mean

    • Standard deviation of the sampling distribution


    Central limit theorem

    Central Limit Theorem


    Standard error of the mean1

    Standard Error of the Mean


    Confidence interval

    Confidence Interval


    Estimating the standard error of the mean

    Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean


    Random sampling error and sample size are related

    Random Sampling Error and Sample Size are Related


    Sample size

    Sample Size

    • Variance (standard deviation)

    • Magnitude of error

    • Confidence level


    Sample size formula

    Sample Size Formula


    Sample size formula example

    Sample Size Formula - Example

    Suppose a survey researcher, studying expenditures on lipstick, wishes to have a 95 percent confident level (Z) and a range of error (E) of less than $2.00. The estimate of the standard deviation is $29.00.


    Sample size formula example1

    Sample Size Formula - Example


    Sample size formula example2

    Sample Size Formula - Example

    Suppose, in the same example as the one before, the range of error (E) is acceptable at $4.00, sample size is reduced.


    Sample size formula example3

    Sample Size Formula - Example


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    2

    2

    é

    ù

    é

    ù

    (

    2

    .

    57

    )(

    29

    )

    (

    2

    .

    57

    )(

    29

    )

    =

    =

    n

    n

    ê

    ú

    ê

    ú

    4

    2

    ë

    û

    ë

    û

    2

    2

    é

    ù

    é

    ù

    74

    .

    53

    74

    .

    53

    =

    =

    ê

    ú

    ê

    ú

    4

    2

    ë

    û

    ë

    û

    ]

    [

    [

    ]

    2

    2

    =

    =

    6325

    18

    .

    37

    .

    265

    =

    =

    347

    1389

    Calculating Sample Size

    99% Confidence


    Standard error of the proportion

    Standard Error of the Proportion


    Confidence interval for a proportion

    Confidence Interval for a Proportion


    Sample size for a proportion

    Sample Size for a Proportion


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    2

    z

    pq

    =

    n

    2

    E

    Where:

    n = Number of items in samples

    Z2 = The square of the confidence interval

    in standard error units.

    p = Estimated proportion of success

    q = (1-p) or estimated the proportion of failures

    E2 = The square of the maximum allowance for error

    between the true proportion and sample proportion

    or zsp squared.


    Persampelan definisi dan tujuan persampelan adalah proses

    =

    p

    .

    6

    2

    (

    96

    )(.

    1.

    )

    (.

    6

    4

    )

    =

    n

    =

    ( .

    035

    )

    2

    q

    .

    4

    (

    3

    .

    8416

    )(.

    24

    )

    =

    001225

    .

    922

    =

    .

    001225

    =

    753

    Calculating Sample Size

    at the 95% Confidence Level


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