Urban geography
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Urban Geography. Where are cities located and why?. Although The U.S. and Europe have a higher percentage of urban dwellers, India and China both have higher numbers of urban dwellers. Settlement Factors: Topography. Orientation and shelter. Settlement Factors: Topography.

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Urban Geography

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Urban Geography


Where are cities located and why?


Although The U.S. and Europe have a higher percentageof urban

dwellers, India and China both have highernumbersof urban

dwellers.


Settlement Factors: Topography

  • Orientation and shelter


Settlement Factors: Topography

  • A river crossing


Settlement Factors:Topography

The floor of a river valley.


Settlement Factors:Topography

  • Machu Pichu—symbolic significance


Site Factors for Settlements: Key resources

  • Mining towns


Site Factors for Settlements:Key resources

Water and energy supply


Site Factors for SettlementsKey resources

The Fall Line—Important resource sites

Trenton NJ

PhiladelphiaPA

Baltimore MD

Washington D.C.

Richmond VA

Raleigh NC

Columbia SC

Atlanta GA

Montgomery, AL

Jackson, MS


Site Factors for Settlements:Key resources

  • Outside of a river’s meander


Site Factors for Settlements:Key resources

At a desert oasis


Site Factors for Settlements:Trade Routes

  • At a crossroads


Site Factors for Settlements:Trade Routes


Site Factors for Settlements:Defense

A hilltop city


Site Factors for Settlements:Defense

New Orleans—The “Crescent City”


Walter Christaller Location Theory

The nested hexagons show urban areas with their surrounding market area (hinterland). Hinterland is the surrounding area served by an urban center


Walter Christaller Location Theory

A hamlet provides some basic services to the people living there and those nearby.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

A village is likely to offer several dozen services. There will be some specialization.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

A town is larger than a village and has a higher level of specialization.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

A city has more specialization and a larger hinterland than a town..

A ciy has suburbs while a town has outskirts


Walter Christaller Location Theory

An urban hierarchy is a ranking of settlements according to their size and functions.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

The rank-size rule states that there is an inverse relationship between the size of a city and its rank in the urban hierarchy.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

Under the rank-size rule:

If the city has 1 million people

-the town will have 500,000 (1/2 the size),

-the village will have 333,333 (1/3 the size),

-and the hamlet will have 250,000 people.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

Conclusions

1. Urban places form an orderly rank or

hierarchy.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

Conclusions

1. Urban places form an orderly rank or

hierarchy.

2. Places of the same size and number of

functions are rather evenly spaced.


Walter Christaller Location Theory

Conclusions

1. Urban places form an orderly rank or

hierarchy.

2. Places of the same size and number of

functions are rather evenly spaced.

3. Larger urban areas are spaced farther

apart than smaller towns or villages.


Where do you see Christaller’s Location theory work?


Walter Christaller Location Theory

  • Christaller’s central place theory tends not hold in countries that have unitary systems of government or those that have gone through extended periods as colonies.

  • They have primate cities.


How are cities organized?

Traditional models of urban structure:


How are cities organized?

The Concentric Zone Model reflects the walking-horse car era--early 20th century.


How are cities organized?

The Sector Model reflects the influence of transportation corridors.


How are cities organized?

The Multiple Nuclei Model reflects the influence of the automobile on suburbanization.


Present-day United States metropolitan area.


The Galactic City


Social Geography of American and Canadian Cities


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