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The Growth of the American Labor Movement. Labor Force Distribution 1870-1900. The Changing American Labor Force. Child Labor. Child Labor. “Galley Labor”. Conditions. Long hours Less than $1.00 per week Difficult, dangerous and unhealthy work Heavy machinery

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The Growth of the American Labor Movement

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The growth of the american labor movement

The Growth

of the

American

Labor Movement


The growth of the american labor movement

Labor Force Distribution1870-1900


The growth of the american labor movement

The Changing American Labor Force


The growth of the american labor movement

Child Labor


The growth of the american labor movement

Child Labor


The growth of the american labor movement

“Galley Labor”


Conditions

Conditions

  • Long hours

  • Less than $1.00 per week

  • Difficult, dangerous and unhealthy work

    • Heavy machinery

    • Could lose finger, arm or be scalped by machinery

    • Dusty, cold/hot respiratory conditions

  • Corporal punishment


Child labor today

Child Labor today?


Labor video

Labor Video

  • Video start at 7:21


Political and social opposition

Political and Social Opposition

  • Workers who wanted to organize a union faced several major problems.

  • There were no laws giving workers the right to organize or requiring owners to negotiate.

  • Courts often ruled that strikes were conspiracies to stop trade and organizers could be fined or jailed.


Marxism

Marxism

  • Unions also suffered from the perception that they threatened American institutions.

  • In the late 1800’s the ideas Karl Marx, called Marxism, had become very influential in Europe.


Marxism1

Marxism

  • Marx primary argument was that the basic force shaping capitalist society was the class struggle between workers and owners.

  • He believed that workers would eventually revolt, seize control of the factories, and overthrow the government.

  • Marx claimed that after the revolution, the government would seize all private property and create a socialist society where wealth was evenly divided.

  • Marx believed eventually the government would fade away leaving a Communist society where classes did not exist.


Marxist and anarchist

Marxist and Anarchist

  • Many labor supporters agreed with Marx, however others supported Anarchism.

  • Anarchists believe society does not need government. Some at the time believed that a few acts of violence could ignite a revolution to topple the government.

  • In the late 1800’s, anarchists assassinated government officials and set off bombs all across Europe hoping to trigger a revolution.

  • The tens of thousands of European immigrants brought these ideas with them to the United States.


The growth of the american labor movement

  • Nativism or anti-immigrant feelings-was already strong in the United States.

  • People began to associate immigrant workers with revolution and anarchism, they became increasingly suspicious of unions.

  • These fears and the governments duty to maintain law and order led officials use courts, police and the army to break up strikes and unions.


The growth of the american labor movement

Labor Unrest: 1870-1900


The growth of the american labor movement

The Molly Maguires(1875)

JamesMcParland


The growth of the american labor movement

The Corporate “Bully-Boys”: PinkertonAgents


The growth of the american labor movement

Management vs. Labor

“Tools” of Management

“Tools” of Labor

  • “scabs”

  • P. R. campaign

  • Pinkertons

  • lockout

  • blacklisting

  • yellow-dog contracts

  • court injunctions

  • open shop

  • boycotts

  • sympathy demonstrations

  • informational picketing

  • closed shops

  • organized strikes

  • “wildcat” strikes


The growth of the american labor movement

A Striker Confronts a SCAB!


The growth of the american labor movement

Knights of Labor

Terence V. Powderly

An injury to one is the concern of all!


The growth of the american labor movement

Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor trade card


The growth of the american labor movement

Goals of the Knights of Labor

  • Eight-hour workday.

  • Workers’ cooperatives.

  • Worker-owned factories.

  • Abolition of child and prison labor.

  • Increased circulation of greenbacks.

  • Equal pay for men and women.

  • Safety codes in the workplace.

  • Prohibition of contract foreign labor.

  • Abolition of the National Bank.


The growth of the american labor movement

  • Graphic Organizer on major labor strikes


The growth of the american labor movement

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877


The growth of the american labor movement

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877


The growth of the american labor movement

The Tournament of Today: A Set-to Between Labor and Monopoly


The growth of the american labor movement

Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886


The growth of the american labor movement

Haymarket Riot (1886)

McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.


The growth of the american labor movement

Haymarket Martyrs


The growth of the american labor movement

Governor John Peter Altgeld


The growth of the american labor movement

The American Federation of Labor: 1886

Samuel Gompers


The growth of the american labor movement

How the AF of L Would Help the Workers

  • Catered to the skilled worker.

  • Represented workers in matters of national legislation.

  • Maintained a national strike fund.

  • Evangelized the cause of unionism.

  • Prevented disputes among the many craft unions.

  • Mediated disputes between management and labor.

  • Pushed for closed shops.


The growth of the american labor movement

Homestead Steel Strike (1892)

Homestead Steel Works

The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers


The growth of the american labor movement

Big Corporate Profits!


The growth of the american labor movement

Attempted Assassination!

Henry Clay Frick

Alexander Berkman


The growth of the american labor movement

A “CompanyTown”:

Pullman, IL


The growth of the american labor movement

Pullman Cars

A Pullman porter


The growth of the american labor movement

The Pullman Strike of 1894


The growth of the american labor movement

President Grover Cleveland

If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!


The growth of the american labor movement

The Pullman Strike of 1894

Government by injunction!


The growth of the american labor movement

The Socialists

Eugene V. Debs


The growth of the american labor movement

International Workers of the World (“Wobblies”)


The growth of the american labor movement

“Big Bill” Haywood of theIWW

  • Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism.


The growth of the american labor movement

I W W & the Internationale


The growth of the american labor movement

The Hand That Will Rule the World One Big Union


The growth of the american labor movement

Mother Jones: “The Miner’s Angel”

  • Mary Harris.

  • Organizer for theUnited MineWorkers.

  • Founded the SocialDemocratic Party in 1898.

  • One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in 1905.


The growth of the american labor movement

Lawrence, MA Strike: 1912


The growth of the american labor movement

The “Bread & Roses” Strike

DEMANDS:

  • 15¢/hr. wage increase.

  • Double pay for overtime.

  • No discrimination against strikers.

  • An end to “speed-up” on the assembly line.

  • An end to discrimination againstforeign immigrant workers.


The growth of the american labor movement

Lawrence, MA Strike: 1912


The growth of the american labor movement

The “Formula”

unions + violence + strikes + socialists + immigrants = anarchists


The growth of the american labor movement

Labor Union Membership


The growth of the american labor movement

“Solidarity Forever!”by Ralph Chapin (1915)

When the union's inspiration through the workers‘ blood shall run,There can be no power greater anywhere beneath the sun;Yet what force on earth is weaker than the feeble strength of one,But the union makes us strong!

CHORUS:Solidarity forever,Solidarity forever,Solidarity forever,For the union makes us strong!


The growth of the american labor movement

Come On and Sing Along!!


The growth of the american labor movement

“Solidarity Forever!”

Is there aught we hold in common with the greedy parasite,Who would lash us into serfdom and would crush us with his might?Is there anything left to us but to organize and fight?For the union makes us strong!

CHORUS:Solidarity forever,Solidarity forever,Solidarity forever,For the union makes us strong!


The growth of the american labor movement

“Solidarity Forever!”

* * * *Through our sisters and our brothers we can make our union strong,For respect and equal value, we have done without too long.We no longer have to tolerate injustices and wrongs,Yes, the union makes us strong!

CHORUS:Solidarity forever,Solidarity forever,Solidarity forever,For the union makes us strong!


The growth of the american labor movement

Workers Benefits Today


The growth of the american labor movement

The Rise & Decline of Organized Labor


The growth of the american labor movement

Right-to-Work States Today


The growth of the american labor movement

Unionism & Globalization?


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