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THE GRAVITATIONAL MODEL OF LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY. Daniel Gile [email protected] www.cirinandgile.com. LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY. PLAIN “KNOWLEDGE” OF WORDS AND RULES OF GRAMMAR? OTHER DIMENSION TO LANGUAGE MASTERY?

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The gravitational model of linguistic availability

THE GRAVITATIONAL MODEL OF LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY

Daniel Gile

[email protected]

www.cirinandgile.com

Gile Gravit Model


Linguistic availability
LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY

PLAIN “KNOWLEDGE” OF WORDS AND RULES OF GRAMMAR?

OTHER DIMENSION TO LANGUAGE MASTERY?

  • SOMETIMES YOU “KNOW” A WORD, BUT HAVE DIFFICULTY IN RETRIEVING IT FROM MEMORY

  • YOU MAY UNDERSTAND A FOREIGN LANGUAGE WHEN IT IS SPOKEN SLOWLY, BUT NOT AT ALL WHEN IT IS SPOKEN FASTER

    THE TIME IT TAKES TO FIND/UNDERSTAND A WORD/LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE IS CORRELATED WITH THE EFFORT IT TAKES

    “LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY”:

    THE VARIABLE WHICH MEASURES THIS TIME/EFFORT

Gile Gravit Model


WORKING MEMORY AND LONG-TERM MEMORY

A METAPHOR

EXT. STIMUL.

LONG-TERM MEMORY WORKING MEMORY

Gile Gravit Model


Language availability production
LANGUAGE AVAILABILITY -PRODUCTION

  • STARTS WITH IDEA

  • RETRIEVES WORDS AND LANGUAGE RULES FROM LTM,

  • PUTS THEM IN WORKING MEMORY

  • TO ASSEMBLE THEM INTO CLAUSES AND SENTENCES

    WITH THE HELP OF INFO RETRIEVED FROM LONG-TERM MEMORY

  • WRITES THEM OR SAYS THEM

Gile Gravit Model


Language availability listening comprehension
LANGUAGE AVAILABILITY -LISTENING COMPREHENSION

  • STARTS WITH SOUNDS

  • TRANSMITS THEM TO WORKING MEMORY

  • IDENTIFIES THEM BY COMPARING THEM

    WITH KNOWN SOUND PATTERNS

  • INTERPRETS THEIR MEANING

  • TRANSFERS THIS ‘MEANING’ TO LONG-TERM MEMORY

Gile Gravit Model


Language availability written comprehension
LANGUAGE AVAILABILITYWRITTEN COMPREHENSION

  • STARTS WITH IMAGES (LETTERS),

  • PUTS THEM IN WORKING MEMORY

  • IDENTIFIES THEM BY COMPARING THEM WITH KNOWN IMAGE PATTERNS RETRIEVED FROM LONG TERM MEMORY

  • INTERPRETS THEIR MEANING

  • TRANSFERS IT TO LONG-TERM MEMORY

Gile Gravit Model


Availability in production
AVAILABILITY IN PRODUCTION

LOW AVAILABILITY SLOWS DOWN PRODUCTION

NOT A MAJOR PROBLEM IN EVERYDAY CONVERSATION

BIG PROBLEM IN SIMULTANEOUS

LESS PROBLEMATIC IN CONSECUTIVE

IN SIMULTANEOUS, IT IS VITAL TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN

HIGH LANGUAGE AVAILABILITY IN PRODUCTION

Gile Gravit Model


Availability in comprehension
AVAILABILITY IN COMPREHENSION

LOW AVAILABILITY SLOWS DOWN PROCESSING OF INCOMING SIGNAL

BIG PROBLEM IN SIMULTANEOUS

AND IN CONSECUTIVE

MAY RESULT NOT IN SLOWER COMPREHENSION

BUT

IN NON-COMPREHENSION

Gile Gravit Model


SPEAKER

HIGH AVAILABILITY

LOW AVAILABILITY

WM span

time

t1 t2 t3

At t1, high availability listener (HAL) has finished processing more than 2 words and keeps one in WM – low availability listener (LAL) has finished processing 1 word

At t2, speaker is uttering 7th word, HAL has finished processing 6 words – LAL has finished processing 2 words, and must keep 5 words in WM.

At t3, LAL is probably saturated

Gile Gravit Model


The gravitational model of linguistic availability1
THE GRAVITATIONAL MODEL OF LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY

THE CLOSER TO CENTER, THE MORE AVAILABLE

DYNAMIC, NOT STATIC

EVERY UNIT OF

LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE

1. DRIFTS OUTWARDS

IF NOT USED

2. INWARDS IF USED

3. ESCORT EFFECT

4. INTERFERENCE EFFECT

5. WRITTEN AND ORAL SYSTEM NOT IDENTICAL

Gile Gravit Model


The interpreter s linguistic availability active languages
THE INTERPRETER’S LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY – ACTIVE LANGUAGES

ACTIVE LANGUAGES

- IN COUNTRY WHERE LIVE

(NOT NECESSARILY IN A LANGU.)

RICH FOR PRODUCTION

- IN OTHER COUNTRY

(LESS ABUNDANT MENTAL LEXICON

HIGHLY AVAILABLE FOR PRODUCTION

PERHAPS LITTLE VARIABILITY)

- AFTER A WHILE, SOME OF THE VOCABULARY NOT VERY - AVAILABLE EVEN IN A LANGUAGE

- WHEN GOING GETS ROUGH, USE HIGHLY AVAILABLE WORDS

- BEWARE OF INTERFERENCE IN B

Gile Gravit Model


The interpreter s linguistic availability passive languages
THE INTERPRETER’S LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY – PASSIVE LANGUAGES

PASSIVE LANGUAGES

- COMPR. AVAILABILITY DEPENDS ON ACTUAL USE

- NEED TO GET USED TO STRANGE ACCENTS

- NOT NECESSARILY PRODUCTION AVAILABILITY

Gile Gravit Model


Enhancing linguistic availability
ENHANCING LINGUISTIC AVAILABILITY LANGUAGES

BY USING LANGUAGE

- REPEATEDLY

(STRENGTHENING NEURAL CONNECTIONS

DECREASES PC REQUIREMENTS)

- ORALLY FOR COMPREHENSION IN INTERPRETING

- IN CONTEXT

(NEWSPAPERS? PLAIN IMMERSION?)

- REHEARSING IS LEGITIMATE AND USEFUL

- LEARNING STANDARD PHRASES IS LEGITIMATE AND USEFUL (Ilg)

- PERHAPS SEVERAL INTERPRETATIONS OF SAME SPEECH

Gile Gravit Model


Zipf s law
ZIPF’S LAW LANGUAGES

Gile Gravit Model


Grmmpf… LANGUAGES

Gile Gravit Model


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