20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11
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20 B Week III Chapters 10 and 11 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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• Chapter 10, 11( except 11.4 and and 11.6 -7) • Intermolecular potentials. Dipole – Dipole, Hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole, ion-ion •Co-existence Curves, Triple point, Critical point

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20 B Week III Chapters 10 and 11

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20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

•Chapter 10, 11( except 11.4 and and 11.6 -7)

•Intermolecular potentials.

Dipole – Dipole, Hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole, ion-ion

•Co-existence Curves, Triple point, Critical point

• Solutions. Interactions in solution, Boiling Point Elevation, Freezing Point Depression and Osmotic Pressure, Electrolyte solutions

Midterm next Friday:

Chaps 9(no 9.7), 10, 11.-11.3

One side of page notes, closed book

Review Session Wednesday

20 B Week III Chapters 10 and 11


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

H2O P-T Phase Diagram

PE

PE+KE

KE


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Pressure -Volume Phase Diagram

SO2(g)SO2( l) SO2(s)

Shows the deviation from Ideal Gas behavior

The Real gas behavior is described well by the vdW’s Equation

Fig. 10-18, p. 461


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

P

NP

NP

NP

P

NP

NP

P

NP

P

P

H-bonds

VDW

Bond dipole

VDW

dipole-dipole

Bond dipole

VDW

dipole-dipole

VDW

dipole-dipole

H-bonds

P=[nRT/(V– nb)] – [a(n/V)2] n=N/NA and R=Nak

Notice the difference between polar molecules (dipole moment ≠0)

and non-polar molecules (no net dipole moment =0) CO2 and CH4


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

-e

+e

Electro-negativity of atoms

Dipole moment =eRe

A measure of the charge separation

In a molecule the more Electronegative atom in a bond will

transfer electron density from the less Electronegative atom

This forms dipole along the bond


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

-e

Dipole-Dipole interaction

+e

Strongest of the physical bonds

Except for hydrogen bonds

Which are the strongest of the

Physical bonds, e.g., (H2O)2

dimer

Dipole moment =eRe


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

vdW’s bonds versus dipolar bonds

R (Inter nuclear distance)

Between the centers of mass


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Chemical bonds versus Physical bonds

R (Inter nuclear distance)

Between the centers of mass


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Minimum Potential Structure of the Dimer: bond angles and bond lengths

How did we find this structure in

20A?

Which equation did we solve and

What approximation allowed us to

find this structure for

chemical bonds

Recall that these are physical bonds

and not chemical (electronic) bonds

rr

R (Internuclear distance)

Between the centers of mass

R-relative center of mass (cm) positions of the HCl monomers in (HCl) Dimer

cm= average mass positions along bond in the HCl monomers.

Re

m1

m2

r1

r2

cm

r2=(m2/m)Re and r1= (m1/m) Re

m=m1 + m2


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

-e

+e

Dipole moment =eRe

A measure of the charge separation and therefore 


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

-e

+e

Electro-negativity of atoms

Dipole moment =eRe

A measure of the charge separation

In a molecule the more Electronegative atom in a bond will

transfer electron density from the less Electronegative atom

This forms dipole along the bond


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

  • Can be measured from the dipole moment

-e

+e


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Chemical bonds versus Physical bonds

Physical bonds

Uses

Van der Waals Eq

Chemical bonds

Do not use

Van der Waal’s Eq

Why?


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

P

NP

NP

NP

P

NP

NP

P

NP

P

P

H-bonds

VDW

Bond dipole

VDW

dipole-dipole

Bond dipole

VDW

dipole-dipole

VDW

dipole-dipole

H-bonds

P=[nRT/(V– nb)] – [a(n/V)2] n=N/NA and R=Nak

Notice the difference between polar molecules (dipole moment ≠0)

and non-polar molecules (no net dipole moment =0) CO2 and CH4


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Boiling points

Or Ze

Fig. 10-12, p. 456


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

H2O P-T Phase Diagram

PE

PE+KE

KE


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Density of H2O vs Temperature

Fig. 10-15, p. 458


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

H2O(l)

Density of H2O vs Temperature

H2O(s)

Fig. 10-15, p. 458


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

H2O P-T Phase Diagram

PE

PE+KE

KE


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Rate of evaporation vs time as the

vapor pressure approaches Equilibrium

Where it equals the condensation Rate

H2O(l)  H2O(g)

Evaporation

All the Macroscopic

Properties, P, V, and T

are only defined at

Equilibrium.

Which means PV=nRT

and the vdW Eq. can

only be use under

Equilibrium conditions

Fig. 10-16, p. 459


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

H2O P-T Phase Diagram

PE

PE+KE

KE


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

H2O P-T Phase Diagram

Equilibrium Vapor Pressure

Super heated

H2O liquid

Will spontaneously

vaporize

Super cooled

H2O liquid will

Spontaneously freeze

In both spontaneous processes

the system will go to the Equilibrium

StatePhase and Pressure

Table 10-3, p. 460


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Equilibrium Vapor Pressure vs Temperature

Fig. 10-17, p. 460


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

In Solutions, for example when NaCl(s) is dissolved in H2O(l).

+ H2O

NaCl(s) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) +Cl-(aq)

(aq) means an aqueous solution, where water is the solvent,

major component.

The solute is NaCl, which is dissolved, minor component

Water molecules solvates the ions the

Cation (Na+) and the Anion (Cl-).

Fig. 10-6, p. 450


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

+∂

-2∂

-2∂

+

-2∂

Solvated Na+

-2∂

+∂

+∂

Fig. 10-6a, p. 450


20 b week iii chapters 10 and 11

Fig. 11-3, p. 480


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