Liquefied natural gas lng terminals
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Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals. Kelly Fortin (APS) Katy Forney (APS) Stanley Krivo (AQMTS). Liquefied Natural Gas. Natural gas converted to liquid state Negative 260F Reduces volume by factor of 600

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Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals

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Liquefied natural gas lng terminals

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals

Kelly Fortin (APS)

Katy Forney (APS)

Stanley Krivo (AQMTS)

Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied Natural Gas

  • Natural gas converted to liquid state

    • Negative 260F

    • Reduces volume by factor of 600

    • LNG is vaporized back to natural gas at import facility (i.e. platform, ship, onshore facility)

    • Transported to end user via pipeline (FERC)

Basic configurations

Basic Configurations

  • LNG carrier to onshore vaporization facility (ex. Elba Island, GA, Lake Charles, LA)

  • LNG carrier to offshore gravitation based vaporization port (Main Pass, LA)

  • LNG carrier to storage and regas vessel (Calypso LNG, FL)

  • Transport and Regas Vessel (Calypso LNG, FL, Gulf Gateway)

  • LNG carrier to Hi-load (TORP LNG, AL)

Examples of lng terminals side by side and turret

Examples of LNG Terminals(Side-by-Side and Turret)

Examples lng terminals onshore and gravitational

Examples LNG Terminals(Onshore and Gravitational)

Region 4 projects

Region 4 Projects:

  • Port Dolphin – Hoegh LNG - 23 miles offshore Tampa (final EIS)

  • TORP Bienville – 63 mi. offshore Fort Morgan, AL (revision w/ AAV 6/09)

  • Calypso LNG – Suez Energy – 8 miles offshore Fort Lauderdale (withdrawn 2/09)

  • Casotte Landing – Chevron- Pascagoula, MS

  • Gulf Energy – Clean Energy -Pascagoula, MS

  • Elba Island – El Paso Southern LNG- Savannah GA (existing expansion)

Examples of lng carriers

Examples of LNG Carriers

Liquefied natural gas lng terminals

Hoegh Galleon

Liquefied natural gas lng terminals

Carrier docked in Oman

Liquefied natural gas lng terminals

Carrier in Alaska (Ships from US to Japan)

Liquefied natural gas lng terminals

Carrier escorted into Boston Harbor (Everett, MA – Suez)

Regulatory agencies roles

Regulatory Agencies’ Roles:


  • USGC/MARAD Lead Agencies under DWPA and NEPA

  • EPA is Cooperating Agency under NEPA

  • EPA issues Air quality and Water permits and for NEPA review

  • DWP specifically grants EPA and the nearest State “veto” authority


  • FERC Lead Agency under NEPA onshore

  • EPA is cooperating agency under NEPA

  • State Agency issues Air Quality Permits

Regulatory authority offshore

Regulatory Authority Offshore

Authorized by the Deepwater Ports Act (DWPA)

as amended by the Energy Policy Act

Deepwater Ports are located beyond State jurisdiction in Federal waters

Distinct from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sources – (OCSLA)

Lng licensing issues

LNG Licensing Issues

Vaporization Process

Open Loop - Heat obtained from sea water (Pelican, Compass)

Closed Loop - Heat obtained from combustion of LNG

(current technology)

Ambient Air Vaporization – Heat obtained from air

(Lake Charles, Clearwater, TORP)

LNG Carrier Emissions

Offloading emissions are significant

LNG carrier emissions - off loading, hotelling, maneuvering

Risk Assessment – Generally conducted by 3rd party/National Lab

Air quality impact modeling issues

Air Quality Impact Modeling Issues

  • Site Boundary

  • Air Quality Model

  • Modeling Procedures

  • PSD Class I and II Area Impacts

  • Inventory of other sources

  • Primary emissions include vessels

  • Differences Between Air permit & NEPA EIS

    Best Advice: Submit Protocol in Advance!

Lng references

LNG References



  • “EPA’s Liquefied Natural Gas Regulatory Roadmap”



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