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Memory. SENSORY STORE. WORKING MEMORY. LONG-TERM MEMORY. A little experiment in memory …. Courtesy of NASA Ames Cognition Laboratory (http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html)

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Memory

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Memory

Memory

SENSORY

STORE

WORKING

MEMORY

LONG-TERM MEMORY


A little experiment in memory

A little experiment in memory …

  • Courtesy of NASA Ames Cognition Laboratory (http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html)

  • Step 1: take out a blank sheet of paper and put “List 1” on the top. Then put your pencil/pen down.

  • Step 2: listen to the list of words carefully.

  • Step 3: after the entire list is finished, you will be instructed to write down as many of the words as you can remember.

  • Step 4: check your list against the one I show you and write the number correct at the top of the page.

  • Repeat steps 1 – 4 with List 2 and List 3.


Results from an earlier experiment

Results from an earlier experiment

http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html


Impact of memory on system design

Impact of memory on system design ...

  • Power:

    • Vast store of knowledge

  • Limitations:

    • Forgetting

    • Limited working memory

    • Attention


Just the facts about memory

“Just the facts” about memory ...

  • Three subsystems of memory:

    • Short-term sensory store

    • Working memory (short-term memory) – WM/STM

    • Long-term memory - LTM

  • These subsystems differ in several ways

    • Capacity

      • Sensory store __________________________________

      • WM is ______________________________

        • (the "magic number" 7 plus or minus 2)

      • LTM __________________________


Just the facts about memory cont

“Just the facts” about memory … (cont.)

  • Differences in memory subsystems (cont.)

    • Duration

      • Sensory store _____________________________________

      • WM _____________________________________________

      • LTM _____________________________

    • Codes

      • Sensory store ____________________

      • WM ____________________________

      • LTM ____________________________


How it works or doesn t

Visuospatial Sketchpad

Phonological Loop

Central

Executive

  • Stored in analog spatial form

  • From visual sensory system or LTM

  • Stored in acoustical form

  • Info kept active through rehearsal

How it works (or doesn’t) ...

  • Working Memory (WM)

    • A model (from Baddeley)


Wm how it works or doesn t

WM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...

  • Restrictions:

    • Capacity - 7 + 2 “items” of information.

    • Time - 7 - 70 second “half-life”

  • Some solutions ...

    • Increase capacity by “chunking”

      • Create meaningful sequence already present in LTM

      • Experiments:

        • Subject could recall > 20 binary digits by coding into octal (0101111 57)

        • Subject could recall > 80 digits by coding into running times (353431653  3 min, 53.4 sec mile; 3 hr, 16 min, 53 sec marathon)

        • Chess masters recall board with great accuracy; "chunk" into strategic patterns


Wm how it works or doesn t1

WM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...

  • Examples of everyday chunking:

    • Parsing - break up into chunks

      • phone numbers, social security numbers

    • Reading musical staffs ("Every Good Boy Does Fine")

    • Medical school mnemonics

    • Songs: constraints of rhythm, rhyme

      • "We Didn't Start the Fire"

      • "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat"

      • Preamble to the US Constitution

  • Other approaches to handling WM limitations:

    • Minimize load

    • Visual “echoes”

    • Exploit different codes (e.g., spatial, verbal, etc.)


How it works or doesn t1

How it works (or doesn’t) ...

  • Long-term memory (LTM)

    • Types

      • Semantic memory - general knowledge

      • Event memory

        • Episodic - an event in the past

        • Prospective - remember to do something

    • Basic mechanisms:

      • Storage - through active rehearsal, involvement, or link to an existing memory.

        • Alternatively - “everything gets in”

      • Retrieval - depends on

        • item strength

        • number and strength of associations to other items


Ltm how it works or doesn t

LTM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...

  • Organization of information in LTM

    • Most-used information is semantic

      • retrieval depends on semantic associations

      • good design builds / uses appropriate semantic associations

    • The network of semantic associations around specific topics are schemas

      • Schemas involving sequences of activities are scripts

      • Schemas concerning how equipment and systems work are mental models


Ltm how it works or doesn t1

LTM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...

  • What it means for design …

    • Encourage regular use of info

    • Standardize

    • Design information to be remembered

    • Provide memory aids


Memory versus knowledge in the world

Memory versus knowledge “in the world”

  • When do you not need to remember something?

    • (Why do you not need to remember what a penny looks like?)

  • When the knowledge is already "in the world"!

    • (Because you only need to recognize a penny - and nothing else looks like it.)


Knowledge in the world

Knowledge “in the world”

  • Affordances

  • Constraints

  • Mappings

  • Conceptual Models

  • Visible Structure

    • Reveals:

      • 1. affordances

      • 2. constraints

      • 3. mappings


Affordance

Affordance

  • "refers to perceived or actual properties of the thing, primarily those fundamental properties that determine just how the thing could possibly be used.” (Norman, pg. 9)

    • Affordances of objects: e.g., chairs, tables, cups

    • Affordances of materials: e.g., glass, wood

    • Affordances of controls: How are things operated?


Examples

Examples ...


Constraints

Constraints

  • Those aspects of a device or material that limit its perceived possible uses.

    • Physical: size, shape, possibilities for movement, etc.

    • Semantic: meaning of the situation

      • related to the notion of “conceptual models”

    • Cultural: defined by tradition, meaning within the culture (e.g., the color red, triangular shape)

    • Logical: placement of controls, direction of movement, etc.

      • related to “mappings”


Examples1

Examples ...

  • Physical constraints

  • Semantic constraints

  • Cultural constraints

  • Logical constraints


Conceptual models

Conceptual Models

  • Our understanding of the way things work, how things are put together, cause & effect, etc.

    • Depends on the visibility of the system structure, the timing of the feedback, and consistency of cause/effect relationships

    • Builds a framework for storing knowledge about a system or device “in the head.”

    • Used to develop explanations, recreate forgotten knowledge, and make predictions.


Mappings

Mappings

  • Making the connection between how things work and how we think they work.

    • Some examples … (stay tuned - more in the display design lesson!)

      • Principle of Pictorial Realism: Displayed quantities should correspond to the human's internal model of these quantities.

      • Congruence: The linear motion of a control and display should be along the same axis and the rotational motion of a control and display should be in the same direction.

      • Principle of the Moving Part: The direction of movement of an indicator on a display should be compatible with the direction of movement of an operator's internal representation of the variable whose change is indicated.

      • Spatial compatibility: The spatial arrangement of displays should be preserved in the controls.


Your turn

Your turn …

  • Recall the question regarding Benjamin Franklin given to you as homework last time.

    • List a few of the things you’ve thought of that Mr. Franklin would be able to “figure out” in your apartment/home.

    • Describe how Mr. Franklin is able to figure these things out in terms of the affordances, constraints, mappings, and visible structure.

      Use the following table to help organize your answer.


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