memory
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Memory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

Memory. SENSORY STORE. WORKING MEMORY. LONG-TERM MEMORY. A little experiment in memory …. Courtesy of NASA Ames Cognition Laboratory (http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Memory' - jaquelyn-albert


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
memory
Memory

SENSORY

STORE

WORKING

MEMORY

LONG-TERM MEMORY

a little experiment in memory
A little experiment in memory …
  • Courtesy of NASA Ames Cognition Laboratory (http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html)
  • Step 1: take out a blank sheet of paper and put “List 1” on the top. Then put your pencil/pen down.
  • Step 2: listen to the list of words carefully.
  • Step 3: after the entire list is finished, you will be instructed to write down as many of the words as you can remember.
  • Step 4: check your list against the one I show you and write the number correct at the top of the page.
  • Repeat steps 1 – 4 with List 2 and List 3.
results from an earlier experiment
Results from an earlier experiment

http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html

impact of memory on system design
Impact of memory on system design ...
  • Power:
    • Vast store of knowledge
  • Limitations:
    • Forgetting
    • Limited working memory
    • Attention
just the facts about memory
“Just the facts” about memory ...
  • Three subsystems of memory:
    • Short-term sensory store
    • Working memory (short-term memory) – WM/STM
    • Long-term memory - LTM
  • These subsystems differ in several ways
    • Capacity
      • Sensory store __________________________________
      • WM is ______________________________
        • (the "magic number" 7 plus or minus 2)
      • LTM __________________________
just the facts about memory cont
“Just the facts” about memory … (cont.)
  • Differences in memory subsystems (cont.)
    • Duration
      • Sensory store _____________________________________
      • WM _____________________________________________
      • LTM _____________________________
    • Codes
      • Sensory store ____________________
      • WM ____________________________
      • LTM ____________________________
how it works or doesn t

Visuospatial Sketchpad

Phonological Loop

Central

Executive

  • Stored in analog spatial form
  • From visual sensory system or LTM
  • Stored in acoustical form
  • Info kept active through rehearsal
How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Working Memory (WM)
    • A model (from Baddeley)
wm how it works or doesn t
WM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Restrictions:
    • Capacity - 7 + 2 “items” of information.
    • Time - 7 - 70 second “half-life”
  • Some solutions ...
    • Increase capacity by “chunking”
      • Create meaningful sequence already present in LTM
      • Experiments:
        • Subject could recall > 20 binary digits by coding into octal (0101111 57)
        • Subject could recall > 80 digits by coding into running times (353431653  3 min, 53.4 sec mile; 3 hr, 16 min, 53 sec marathon)
        • Chess masters recall board with great accuracy; "chunk" into strategic patterns
wm how it works or doesn t1
WM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Examples of everyday chunking:
    • Parsing - break up into chunks
      • phone numbers, social security numbers
    • Reading musical staffs ("Every Good Boy Does Fine")
    • Medical school mnemonics
    • Songs: constraints of rhythm, rhyme
      • "We Didn\'t Start the Fire"
      • "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat"
      • Preamble to the US Constitution
  • Other approaches to handling WM limitations:
    • Minimize load
    • Visual “echoes”
    • Exploit different codes (e.g., spatial, verbal, etc.)
how it works or doesn t1
How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Long-term memory (LTM)
    • Types
      • Semantic memory - general knowledge
      • Event memory
        • Episodic - an event in the past
        • Prospective - remember to do something
    • Basic mechanisms:
      • Storage - through active rehearsal, involvement, or link to an existing memory.
        • Alternatively - “everything gets in”
      • Retrieval - depends on
        • item strength
        • number and strength of associations to other items
ltm how it works or doesn t
LTM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Organization of information in LTM
    • Most-used information is semantic
      • retrieval depends on semantic associations
      • good design builds / uses appropriate semantic associations
    • The network of semantic associations around specific topics are schemas
      • Schemas involving sequences of activities are scripts
      • Schemas concerning how equipment and systems work are mental models
ltm how it works or doesn t1
LTM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • What it means for design …
    • Encourage regular use of info
    • Standardize
    • Design information to be remembered
    • Provide memory aids
memory versus knowledge in the world
Memory versus knowledge “in the world”
  • When do you not need to remember something?
    • (Why do you not need to remember what a penny looks like?)
  • When the knowledge is already "in the world"!
    • (Because you only need to recognize a penny - and nothing else looks like it.)
knowledge in the world
Knowledge “in the world”
  • Affordances
  • Constraints
  • Mappings
  • Conceptual Models
  • Visible Structure
    • Reveals:
      • 1. affordances
      • 2. constraints
      • 3. mappings
affordance
Affordance
  • "refers to perceived or actual properties of the thing, primarily those fundamental properties that determine just how the thing could possibly be used.” (Norman, pg. 9)
    • Affordances of objects: e.g., chairs, tables, cups
    • Affordances of materials: e.g., glass, wood
    • Affordances of controls: How are things operated?
constraints
Constraints
  • Those aspects of a device or material that limit its perceived possible uses.
    • Physical: size, shape, possibilities for movement, etc.
    • Semantic: meaning of the situation
      • related to the notion of “conceptual models”
    • Cultural: defined by tradition, meaning within the culture (e.g., the color red, triangular shape)
    • Logical: placement of controls, direction of movement, etc.
      • related to “mappings”
examples1
Examples ...
  • Physical constraints
  • Semantic constraints
  • Cultural constraints
  • Logical constraints
conceptual models
Conceptual Models
  • Our understanding of the way things work, how things are put together, cause & effect, etc.
    • Depends on the visibility of the system structure, the timing of the feedback, and consistency of cause/effect relationships
    • Builds a framework for storing knowledge about a system or device “in the head.”
    • Used to develop explanations, recreate forgotten knowledge, and make predictions.
mappings
Mappings
  • Making the connection between how things work and how we think they work.
    • Some examples … (stay tuned - more in the display design lesson!)
      • Principle of Pictorial Realism: Displayed quantities should correspond to the human\'s internal model of these quantities.
      • Congruence: The linear motion of a control and display should be along the same axis and the rotational motion of a control and display should be in the same direction.
      • Principle of the Moving Part: The direction of movement of an indicator on a display should be compatible with the direction of movement of an operator\'s internal representation of the variable whose change is indicated.
      • Spatial compatibility: The spatial arrangement of displays should be preserved in the controls.
your turn
Your turn …
  • Recall the question regarding Benjamin Franklin given to you as homework last time.
    • List a few of the things you’ve thought of that Mr. Franklin would be able to “figure out” in your apartment/home.
    • Describe how Mr. Franklin is able to figure these things out in terms of the affordances, constraints, mappings, and visible structure.

Use the following table to help organize your answer.

ad